“Before Mormonism”
An On-line Library of Early Texts

Thomas Thorowgood
Jewes in America

(London: 1650 & 1660 editions)

1650 London Edition

1660 London Edition (revised)

1650 Edition   1650 Dedication   1650 Main Article  |  1660 Edition   1660 Eliot Letter

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Iewes in America,
hat the AMERICANS are of
that Race.

With the removall of some
contrary reasonings, and earnest
desires for effectuall endeavours
to make them Christian.

Proposed by THO: THOROWGOOD, B. D. one of the
Assembly of Divines.

CANT. 8. 8. We have a little sister, and she hath no breasts, what
shall we doe for our sister in the day when she shall be spoken for?

MAT. 8. 11. Many shall come from the East, and from the West,
and shall sit downe with
Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the
Kingdome of Heaven.

Aethiopes vertuntur in filios Dei, si egerint paenitentiam, &
filii Dei transeunt in Aethiopes si in profundum venerint
Hieronym. in Esai.

London, Printed by W. H. for Tho. Slater, and are be to sold
at his shop at the signe of the Angel in Duck lane, 1650.

(Note: Consult 1650 page scans for original, often faulty, pagination)

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T H E  H O N O U R A B L E
Knights and Gentlemen that
have residence in, and relation

to the County of Norfolk, Peace,
from the God of Peace.

When the glad tidings of the Gospels sounding in America by the preaching of the English arrived hither, my soule also rejoyced within me, and I remembred certaine papers that had been laid aside a long time, upon review of them, and some additions to them, they were privately communicated unto such as perswaded earnestly they might behold further light; being thus finished, and licenced also to walke abroad, as

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they were stepping forth, that incivility charged upon Chrysippus occurred, that he dedicated not his writings to any King or Patron, which custome presently seemed not onely lawfull, but as ancient as those Scriptures where Saint Luke in the history of the Acts of the Apostles applies himselfe to Theophilus, Act. 1. 1. And Saint John to the Elect Lady, so named, some thinke, or for her graces so entituled, I was easily induced to follow this fashion, and my thoughts soone reflected upon you, Who are [------], as well as [-----], lovers of God, and choice men of your Countrey. I may be censured for this high, generall, and ambitious dedication; but I doe freely publish my own utter unworthinesse: tis true, my respects and love be very much to you all, and my native soile, yet in this I doe not drive any private designe, I looke beyond my selfe, at your honour, the honour of the Nation, yea the glory of God, and the soule-good of many millions that are yet in darkenesse and out of Christ; By you is the following tract communicated to the world, I wish, and pray, that the designe bespoken in it may be cordially furthered by you, and all that read or heare

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thereof; tis like you will finde in the probabilities so many Iudaicall resemblances in America, that as it was said of old, [ ------ ], either Plato writes like Philo the Iew, or Philo is become Platonicke; so the Jewes did Indianize, or the Indians doe Judaize, for surely they are alike in many, very many remarkable particulars, and if they bee Iewes, they must not for that be neglected; visible comments indeed they are of that dismall Text, Thou shalt become an astonishment, a proverbe, and a by-word to all Nations, &c. Deut. 28. 37. and so they are every where to this day: what more reproachfull obloquy is there among men, then this, Thou art a Jew? Oh the bitter fruits of disobedience; and tis high time for us Gentiles to lay up that example, in the midst of our hearts, Pro. 4. 21. remembring alwaies, because of unbeliefe they were broken off, and, if God spared not the naturall branches, take heed lest hee spare not thee. Rom. 11. 21. It was a suddaine sentence, Tam viles inter Christianos Iudaei, ut inter mundum triticum mures, Jewes are as bad and vile among Christians, as Mice in cleane wheate; for glorious were their privileges, and we have

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a share in some of them, that last especially -- of whom concerning the flesh Christ came, who is God over all, blessed for ever, Rom. 9. 4, 5. and for another thing they have highly merited our regard -- To them were commited the Oracles of God, Rom. 3. 9. The holy Scriptures were concredited to them, and they have faithfully preserved them for us, and conveyed them to us: Former times indeed found cause to exterminate them these dominions, I say nothing for such their reintroduction, which must be with sacred and civill cautions, that the sweet name of our dearest Lord be not blasphemed, nor the Natives robbed of their rights, but when will Christians in earnest endeavour their conversion, if the name of Jew must be odious everlastingly? I speak for their Gospelizing, though some suspect they are never likely to come again under that covenant, as if the Liber repudii, the bill of divorce mentioned by the Prophet did put them away from God for ever, Esa. 50. 1. as if they should return to their Spouse no more, but that there is for them a time of love, and that they shall be grafted in, Rom. 11. 23. is manifested afterwards upon Scripture grounds; and if the period of

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their wandering be upon its determination, and their recovery approching, how may wee rejoyce in the returne of that Prodigall? It is meet that wee should make merry and be glad, for our brother that was dead is reviving againe, Luk. 15. 32. How should wee beg for them that God would poure upon them the spirit of grace and supplication, that they may looke upon him whom they have pierced, and mourne for him as one mourneth for his onely sonne. Zach. 12. 10. Or if the lost Tribes are not to be found in America, of whatsoever descent and origination the poore Natives be, if they finde the Lord Christ, and the Nov-angles be the Wisemen guiding them unto their peace, great cause shall wee have to lift up the high praises of our God in spirituall exultation; how should wee cast our mite into this treasury, yea our Talent, our Talents, if wee have them? for certainely the time is comming, That as there is one Shepherd, there shall be one Sheepfold. Io. 10. 16. It is true, our owne Countrey in many respects stands in need of helpe, wee are fallen into the last and worst times, the old age of the world, full of dangerous and sinnefull diseases, Iniquity is encreased, and if

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ever, if to any people, the saying of that Torrent of Tullian eloquence (so Ierome calls Lactantius ) be applicable, it is to poore England, that is not onely in the gall of bitternesse, but in the very dregs of error and ungodlinesse, Ideo mala omnia rebus humanis ingravescunt, quia Deus hujus mundi effector ac gubernator derelictus est, quia susceptaesunt, contra quam fas est impiae religiones, postremo quia ne coli quidem vel à paucis Deus sinitur. But, O my soule, if thou be wise, be wise for thy selfe, Pro. 9. 12. and give mee leave to say to you as Moses to his Israell, Onely take heed to your selves, and keepe your soules diligently, Deut. 4. 9. make your calling and election sure, 2 Pet. 1. 10. and because you are the children of faithfull Abraham, command your children and families that they walke in the waies of the Lord, Gen. 18. 9. and let who will serve themselves, follow lying vanities, and set up their owne lusts; let every one of us say and do as Ioshua, I and my house will serve the Lord, Josh. 24. 15. And not onely serve the Lord with and in our housholds, but in furthering the common good of others, and tis considerable God is pleased to owne publique

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interests, though in civill things with the name of his owne inheritance. But this is the sinne, this is the misery of these times, All seek their owne, not the things of Iesus Christ. Even regulated charity may beginne at home, it may not, it must not end there, it is the onely grace that is sowne on earth, it growes up to heaven and continues there, it goes with us thither, and there abides to all eternity, and tis therefore [-------], greater then faith and hope, not from continuance onely, but its extensivenesse, it delights to be communicative, it reacheth an hand of helpe one way or other to every one that needs, though at never so great a distance; after the cloven tongues as of fire had warmed the affections of the holy Apostles, they had so much love to soules that they forgat their fathers house, discipled all Nations, and preached the Gospel to every creature, Their line went through all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world, that former known world, the same spirit hath warmed the hearts of our Countreymen, and they are busie at the same worke in the other, the new-found world; For behold a white horse and he that sate on him had a bow, and a Crown was

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given unto him, and hee went forth conquering, and to conquer; so the Lord Christ shall be light to that world also, and Gods salvation to the ends of the earth. Britain hath woon the Gospel-glory from all other Countries, not onely imbracing it with the formost, as old Gildas testifieth, but it was the first of all the Provinces that established Christianity by a law saith Sabellicus, our Lucius was the first Christian King that Annales make mention of, and venerable Bede out of Eutropius declareth that Constantine the first Christian Emperour, was created to that dignity in this Island, & Sozom. l. 9. c. 11. saith that so were Marcus & Gratian also; But Constantine brought further honour to the Nation & Religion: For the Saxon Bede, and Ponticus Virunnius affirme expresly, that Constantine was born in Britaine; after this, ingemuit orbis videns se totum Romanum, All the world wondred after the Beast, & groaned under the Papall servitude, and our K. Henry the eight was the first of all the Princes who brake that yoke of Antichrist: but neerer yet to our purpose; The Inhabitants of the first England, so Verstegan calls that part of Germany whence our Ancestors came hither with the Saxons and Iutes,

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derive their Christianity from Iewry, Ad nos doctrina de terra Iudaeorum per sanctos Apostolos, qui docebant gentes, pervenit, as that great linguist, learned, and laborious Mr Wheelocke hath observed, and translated out of the old Saxon Homilies, tis but just therefore lege talionis, that we repay what we borrowed, and endeavour their conversion who first acquainted us with the eternall Gospell, and if it be probable that providence honoured this Nation with the prime discovery of that New World, as is intimated hereafter, it is true without all controversie, that from this second England God hath so disposed the hearts of many in the third, New England, that they have done more in these last few yeares towards their conversion, then hath been effected by all other Nations and people that have planted there since they were first known to the habitable world, as if that Prophesie were now in its fulfilling; Behold, I will doe a new thing, now it shall spring forth shall ye not know it? I will even make a way in the Wildernes and rivers in the desart, &c. When our Ancestors lay also in darkenesse and the shadow of death, Gregory wrote divers Epistles to severall Noblemen and Bishops, yea

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and to some Kings and Queenes of France and England, these Sir H. Spelman that famous Antiquary, your noble Countreyman, and of alliance to divers of you, calls epistolas Britannicas, which are also mentioned afterwards; in these he gives God thankes for their forwardnesse to further the worke of grace, and desires earnestly the continuance of their bountifull and exemplary encouragement of such as were zealously employed in that Soule-worke, and that is one of the two businesses entended in the following discourse, which begs your assistance in your Spheres, and cordiall concurrence to promote a designe of so much glory to the Lord of glory. This is no new notion, or motion, all the royall Charters required the Gospellizing of the Natives; and in the beginning of this Parliament there was an Ordinance of Lords and Commons appointing a Committee of both, and their worke was, among other things, to advance the true Protestant Religion in America, and to spread the Gospell among the Natives there; and since, very lately, there is an Act for the promoting and propagating the Gospell of Iesus Christ in New-England. I wish prosperity to

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all the Plantations, but those of New-England deserve from hence more then ordinary favour; because, as by an Edict at Winchester, about eighth hundred yeeres since, King Ecbert commanded this Country should be called Angles-land, so these your Countreymen of their owne accord, and alone, were, and are, ambitious to retain the name of their owne Nation; besides, this England had once an Heptarchate, and then your Countrey was the chiefe of that Kingdome called Anglia Orientalis, and these are the neerest of all the seven to you in name, Nov-angles, East-angles; I pray that you would be nearest and most helpefull to them in this most Christian and Gospel-like designe, which I leave with you, and two or three Petitions at the throne of grace for you; one is that of Moses, Yee shall not doe after all the things that wee do heare this day, every man whatsoever is right in his owne eyes, but that ye walk by rule and not by example; this is an age much enclining to Enthousiasmes and Revelations; men pretend to externall and inward impulses, but wee must remember, though wee had a voice from heaven, yet having the Scriptures wee have [ ------ ] a

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more sure Propheticall word, whereunto yee doe well that yee take heed, as unto a light, that shineth in a darke place, untill the day dawne, and the day starre arise in your hearts; here is a comparison, even with an heavenly voice, which must vaile and submit to the written word, because poore mankind may easily be deluded by him, who among his many other wiles and depths can transform himself into an Angel of light. Againe, my prayer for you is, that in the wofull concussions and commotions of these daies, your selves may stand firme and unmoveable: You have seene the waters troubled, and the Mountaines shaken with the swelling thereof, Oh, that you may say, in and with holy Davids sense, though an host should encampe against me, my heart shall not feare, though warre should rise up against me, in this will I be confident; this? and what is it, but ver. 1. The Lord is my light and my salvation, whom shall I feare, the Lord is the strength of my life, of whom shall I be afraid; even heathens have said much and done much towards that [ ------ ], magnanimity and patience, but Christians have an higher prospect, they looke above the terrors of men, and they doe not feare their feare; for as Stephen through

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a showre of stones, they can see the heavens open and the Sonne of man sitting at the right hand of God; nihil crus sentit in nervo, si animus sit in caelo, they are not so much affected with what they feele, as with that they believe, because we walk by faith and not by sight.

And oh, that these strange mutations may perswade us all, all the daies of our appointed time to waite, untill our change come, even that change which never, never can again be changed; these are the last times and yet a little while, yea [ ------ ], yet a little, little while, and hee that shall come will come, and will not tarry, his fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floore, and gather the wheate into the garner, but will burne up the chaffe with unquenchable fire. The ungodly shall not stand in the judgement, for all faces shall then be unmasked, and every vizard shall be plucked off, The Lord will then bring to light the hidden things of darknesse, and will make manifest the counsels of the heart, and then every one that hath done well, shall have praise of God. The Lord God of our mercies fit you for his appointment, stablish you in every good word and worke, and keepe you from evill, that you may give up your account with joy, and not

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with griefe; and now I commend you all, and all that love that appearing of our Lord, unto the word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all them that are sanctified; such is the serious and unfaigned devotion for you, of him who willingly subscribes himselfe,

Your most humble servant

          in our dearest Lord,

                           THO: THOROWGOOD.

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The Preface to the READER.

Bona domus in ipso veistbulo debet agnosci saith Austin, the portall commonly promiseth somewhat of the house it self, and prefaces be as doors that let in the Reader to the Booke, and bespeake much of the intention of the writer; you are in some measure prepared already by the foregoing Epistle, with the forefront, and first page: Marsilius Ficinus said of his booke De triplici Vita. Esca tituli tam suavis quam plurimos alliciet ad gustandum, The title will invite some to further enquiry; it is in mans nature to be well pleased with novelties, thence later times have had good leave to correct former mistakes. It was written with confidence long since, that the shee Beares did licke their informe litter into fashion, that the young Viper thrusts its Dam out of the world to bring it selfe into it, and that the Swan sings its owne dirige at his dying, all which be sufficiently confuted by after experiences, famous varieties of this sort be daily produced to view, those are curious enquiries into common errors by Doctor Browne. It was said of one contort in body, but of a fine spirit, Animus Galbae malè habitat, It was a bad house for so good an Inhabitant; many thought so and worse of Richard the third, King of England, till those late endeavours to rectifie him and his readers. that Geographia Sacra is an exact and accurate worke, in respect of the subject and materials, the scattering of Nations at the building

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of Babel, and it may puzzle some mens thoughts, that hee should know so well the places of their dispersion so long since, and yet wee continue ignorant what is become of Gods owne first people, which shall be recovered to him againe, and have not been missing so many yeeres. The Trojans, though now no Nation, live yet in the ambitious desire of other people, clayming from them their descent: The Jewes, once the Lords owne peculiar people, are now the scomme and scorne of the world; Florus calls their glory the Temple, Impiae gentis arcanum; Democritus another Historian said they worshipped an Asses head, every third yeere sacrificed a man, &c. Others speake spightfull things of them, and their pettigree; only the Lacedemonian King, in that Letter whereof you have a copy, 1 Macab. 12. 20. &c. tells Onias the High Priest. It is found in writing that the Spartans and Jewes are Brethren, and come out of the generation of Abraham. The originall indeed of the Jewes is assuredly knowne to themselves and all Christians; Wee have no such evidence for any other people that have now a being; there is nothing more in the darke to the inhabitants of the severall parts of this earth, then their owne beginnings, and tis thus in Countries of along time knowne to each other, and yet in such disquisition they cannot affoord one another almost any light or help; no wonder therefore that the Originall of the Americans is in such uncertaine obscurity, for their very name hath not been heard of much more than one hundred and fifty yeares, tis a wonder rather that so great a part of the world should be till then Terra incognita, notwithstanding the ambition, curiosity, and avarice of mankind carried him into a greedy inquisition after all places and corners where men and beasts abode, or any commodity was to be found: Hieronimus Benzo in his Nova novi orbis Historia, so often hereafter mentioned, professeth, that above all things concerning the Americans, his great designe was to finde out what thoughts they had of Christians; touching the Countrey it selfe in the Topography and other particulars, besides divers mentioned in the following discourse; some have of late done excellently that way: that tis no part of my businesse, which, next to the desire of their conversion to Christ, was, and is, to aske whence they came; and that they be Judaicall, I have laid together severall conjectures

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as they occurred in reading and observing, to stirre up and awaken more able inquisitors, to looke after the beginning, nature, civilizing, and Gospellizing those people, and to cast in my poore mite towards the encouragement of our Countreymen in such their pious undertaking; and though some men have spoken meane things of them in reference to their labours that way, as if they had been negligent therein, such men consider not I feare, how long their Countreymen have been wrastling with divers difficulties, and busily employing their minds and time in providing outward accommodations for themselves in a strange land, they remember not the naturall perversenesse of all mankind to spirituall things, nor with what counterworkes Satan doth oppose the underminers of his Principalities, nor how he hath broken the language of the Natives into severall tongues and dialects to impede their conversion, nor how the Novangles have themselves been broken into divers ruptures, lest they should be at leasure to further the enlargement of Christs Kingdome upon the spoiles and diminution of his; this was in the purpose of their hearts at first, and now to their comfort they do abundantly see that the Natives are a docible people, who for their contempt of gold & silver, and for some other reasons, have been deemed bruitish, and almost irrationall; but to what is after written it may be mentioned in this place, that in Mexico they were observed to be wise and politique in government, to the admiration of Christians, yea they were not ignorant in those parts of letters and writing, though in a different fashion from others: Acosta did observe, the Jewes write from the right hand to the left, others from the left to the right, the Chinois or East-Indians write from the top to the bottom, & the Mexicans from the bottome to the top, the Reformed Dominican in his new survey of the West-Indies, tells of a Town as he travelled, called Amat Titlan, a Towne of Letters, and of very curious Artifices of their Citizens, of Goldsmiths worke and otherwise, their ingenuity, cunning and courage is marvelously manifest in their leading a Whale as big as a mountaine, with a cord, and vanquishing him in this manner; by the helpe of their Canoes or little Boats, they come neare to the broad side of that huge creature, oand with great dexterity leape upon his necke, there they ride as on horsebacke, and thrust a sharpe stake into his nosthrill, so they

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call the hole or vent by which they breathe, he beats it in with another stake as forcibly as hee can, the furious Whale in the meane time raiseth Mountaines of waters, and runnes into the deep with great violence and paine, the Indian still sits firme, driving in another stake in o that other passage, so stopping his breath, then hee goes againe to his Canoe, which with a cord hee had tied to the Whales side, and so he paesseth to land; the Whale running away with the cord, leaps from place to place in much pame till hee gets to shoare, and being on ground, hee cannot move his huge body, then a great number of Indians come to the conquerer, they kill the Whale, cut his flesh in pieces, they dry it, and make use of it for food, which lasts them long, thus plainely verifying that expression, Psal. 74. 14. Thou breakest the heads of Leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the Wildernesse: When, or where, or by whom is this thus done, but by these? who will not now desire, and willingly lend his helpe to cover their naked bodies, and cloath their more naked soules with the Gospel, who, and who alone have so litterally fulfilled that Scripture of our God? But let me commend three other things to thy consideration, that thy affections may bee warmed towards thy Countreymen, and they receive encouragement in the planting of themselves, and the Gospel among the Natives.

First, they may be preparing an hiding place for thy selfe, whoever, whatever now thou art, thou mayst be overtaken by a tempest, and stand in need of a shelter, and where canst thou be better for sweetnesse of aire and water, with the fertility of the soile, giving two wheate harvests in one yeare in severall places, yea in some, three, saith P. Martyr, and Books generally speake of that Land as of a second Canaan: and for New-England you may believe the relation of a very friend there to his like here, who mutually agreed upon a private character, that the truth might be discovered without deceit or glozing, and thus he wrote to him whom he entirely loved. The aire of this Countrey is very sweet and healthfull, the daies two houres shorter in Summer, and two houres longer in Winter then they be with you, the Summer is a little hotter, and the Winter, a little colder, our grounds are very good and fruitfull for all kind of corne, both English and

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Indian, our cattell thrive much better here then in Old England, Fowle encrease with us exceedingly, wee have many sweet and excellent springs, and fresh Rivers, with abundance of good Fish in them; of a very truth, I believe verily, it will be within a few yeares the plentifullest place in the whole world, &c. I might proclaime, saith Lerius, the Inhabitants of that Land happy, meaning the Natives, if they had knowledge of the Creator; so that as parents intending to marry their Daughters well, extend themselves in what they may to encrease their portion, and make way for their preferment, our heavenly Father hath dealt thus with these Americans, enriching them with Gold, Silver, good aire, good water, and all other accommodations for use and delight, that they might be the more earnestly wooed and sought after.

And yet further, as he commended his house offered to sale, that it had good neighbours, if thou beest driven thither, goe chearefully, for thou goest to thine owne Countreymen, from one England to another, New England indeed, witnesse that experimented asseveration of him worthy of credit, who having lived in a Colony there of many thousand English almost twelve yeares, and was held a very sociable man, speaketh considerately, I never heard but one oath sworne, never saw one man drunke, nor ever heard of three women adulteresses, if these sinnes be among us privily, the Lord heale us, I would not be understood to boast of our innocency, there is no cause I should, our hearts may be bad enough, and our lives much better. And yet they have more abundantly testified their pious integrity in serious endeavours to propogate Gospel-holinesse, even to those that be without, their godly labours Christianizing the Natives must be remembred to their praise, they have had long and longing preparative thoughts and purposes that way, and as Saint Paul once to his Corinthians, 2. 6. 11. they have seemed to say O Americans, our mouth is opened unto you, our heart is enlarged, you are not straightned in us, be not straightned in your owne bowels, and now for a recompence of all our endeavours to preach Christ unto you, we aske no more, but be ye also enlarged with gladnesse to receive the Lord Jesus Christ: their active industry in this kind with the successe is now famously visible in severall discourses, which whosoever shall read will be sufficiently contented in his spirituall

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and outward well-wishings to his friends, both of this Nation and the Natives, for the Gospel runs there and is glorified: and here I crave leave to speake a word or two to the Military Reader, the late English American traveller, dedicating his observations upon his journeys of three thousand three hundred miles within the maine Land of America, to the Lord Fairefax, speakes knowingly to his Excellency, that with the same paines and charge that the English have been at in planting one of the petty Islands, they might have conquered so many great Cities, and large territories on the Continent as might very well merit the title of a Kingdom; he shewes further, that the Natives have not onely just right to the Land, and may transferre it to whom they please, but that it may easily be wonne from the Spaniards, and that for these three reasons among the rest. 1. The Spaniards themselves are but few and thinne. 2. The Indians and Blackamoores will turne against them, and so will 3. The Criolians, that is, the Spaniards borne in America, whom they will not suffer to beare office in Church or state; Looke Westward then yee men of Warre, thence you may behold a rising Sunne of glory, with riches and much honour, and not onely for your selves, but for Christ, whom you say you desire above all, and are delighted to honour: In yonder Countries, that the following leaves speake of, non cedunt arma togae, the pen yeelds to the pike, the first place of honour is given to the profession of armes, and therefore in Mexico the Noblemen were the chiefe souldiers; thus you may enlarge not onely your owne renowne, but the borders of the Nation, yea the Kingdome of the King of Saints. We have all made covenants and professions of reformation at home, with promises to propagate the Gospell of our deare Lord among those that remaine in great and miserable blindnesse, how happy were it for them and us, if this England were in such a posture of holinesse and tranquility, that all opportunities might be imbraced to advance its territories abroad; In the interim I could wish with the most passionate, and compassionate of all the holy Prophets, Oh that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountaine of teares, that I might weep day and night for the sinnes, and for the slaine of the daughter of my people, Oh that I had in the wildernesse, &c. Ier. 9. 1. 2. Our Countrey is justly called our mother, whose heavy groanes

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under multiplied miseries be heard from all places, whose bowels doe not sympathize with her, and yerne over her, who is not unwilling or ashamed to gather riches or honour from her rents and ruine; the Heathen Orator spake affectionately, our parents are dear to us, and so be our children, alliances and familiars, but the love of our countrey, comprehends in it and with it all other dearnesses whatsoever; and in another place, Omnes qui patriam conserverunt, adjuverunt, auxerunt, certum est esse in caelo, tis certaine they are all in heaven that have been lovers and conservators of their Countrey; and when heathenish Babylon was the place of Israels exile, they are commanded by God himselfe, to seeke the peace of the City whether they were carried, and pray unto the Lord for it, Jer. 29. 7. It is recorded to the honour of Mordecai, that he sought the wealth of his people, Esth. 10. 3. the contrary to this entailes ignominy to men and their posterity, by the book of Gods own heraldry, Esa. 14. 20. Thou shalt not be joyned with them in buriall, because thou hast destroyed thy land, and slaine thy people, the seed of evill doers shall never be renowned; for that Judge judged righteously: In a civill warre there is no true victory, in asmuch as he that prevaileth is also a loser. But I returne, and reinvite to peruse these probabilities, and if they like not, because they are no more but guesses and conjectures, yet the requests I hope shall be listened unto, for they aime at Gods glory and mans salvation, and nothing else; and surely the poore Natives will not be a little encouraged to looke after the glorious Gospel of Christ, when they shall understand that not onely the English among them, but wee all here are daily sutors for them at the throne of grace, so that we may say as Paul to the Romans, 1. 9. God is our witnesse, whom wee serve with our spirit in the Gospel of his Sonne, that without ceasing wee make mention of them alwaies in our prayers; Mr. Elliot whose praise is now through all our Churches, 2 Cor. 8. 18. deserves publique encouragement from hence, besides those sprinklings of an Apostolicall spirit received from heaven, by which in an high and holy ambition he preacheth the Gospell where Christ had not been named, Rom. 15. 20. such another [ ------ ------- ], like-minded soule-lover is not readily to be found, that naturally careth for their matters, Phil. 2. 20. regarding the Indians as if they were his owne charge and children, and as God hath furnished

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him with ministeriall and spirituall abilities for the worke. I wish that he and his com-Presbyters and companions in that labour, might be supplyed with all externall accommodations, to further the civilizing, and Gospellizing of the Americans.

And now me thinks I heare thee say also, Oh that the day breaking of the Gospel there, might be the way of Saints, even the path of the just, as the shining light that shineth more and more unto the perfect day, Pro. 4. 18. and oh that all our Nation here and there, would forbeare all other strivings, being ashamed and afraid lest their woefull quarrels be told in Gath, and published in the streets of Askalon, to the prejudice of the Gospels progresse here and there and every where; Erasmus felt what he said of the differences in his time, Tragaediae Lutheranae mihi ipsi etiam calculo molestiores, and who laments not the wofull tearings of our Nation? who bewailes not to see the breakings of the sheepfold? who mournes not to heare the strange bleeting of the flocks? and what soule is not grieved for the great divisions of England? and let me wish once more, Oh that all who love the Lord Jesus in sincerity, would study to speake the same things, and that all would be perfectly joyned together in the same minde, and in the same judgement, 1 Cor. 1. 10. converting all their tongue-combats, and pen-contentions into an earnest contending, that the faith once delivered to the Saints (Jud. 3.) might be preserved whole, holy, and entire among themselves, and be with like holinesse and integrity communicated to the Indians, that doe now so much hunger and thirst after that righteousnesse of our most deare Lord and Master Christ; let us all with our tongues, purses, pens, counsels, and prayers, promote this worke of God with one shoulder and consent: there be among us here that have had this in their daily devotions more then twenty yeares, which is mentioned to no other end but from desire to call in thy helpe also; I will take leave by commending to thy practice the imitation of learned and holy Theod. Beza in his daily prayer for the Iewes, Lord Iesus thou dost justly avenge the contempt of thy selfe, and that ingratefull people is worthy of thy most severe indignation; but, Lord, remember thy covenant, and for thy names sake be favourable to those miserable wretches, and to us the most unworthy of all men, unto whom thou hast vouchsafed thy mercy, bestow this goodnesse also, that we may grow in thy grace, that we be not instruments of thy wrath against them, but rather, both by the knowledg of thy word, and by the examples of holy life, we may, by the assistance and vertue of thy holy Spirit, reduce them into the right way, that thou maist once be glorified of all Nations and people for ever, Amen.

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An Epistolicall Discourse


Concerning his conjecture that the
Americans are descended from the

With the History of a Portugall Iew,
Antonie Monterinos, attested by
Manasseh Ben Israel, to the
same effect.


I am bound to thank you for the communication of your booke, which I have read with a great deale of delight and satisfaction; for the rarity of the subject, and the variety of your observations thereupon, which you have deduced with as much probability to make out your theme, as History can afford matter: I did shew it to another friend of great judgement and ingenuity, who was so taken with it, that he said he would have it to be coppied out at his cost, if you would not publish it to the world, which hee and I have resolved

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to importune you to doe: for although at first blush, the thing which you offer to be believed, will seeme to most men incredible, and extravigant; yet when all things are laid rationally and without prejudice together, there will be nothing of improbability found therein, which will not be swallowed up with the appearance of contrary likelyhoods, of things possible and lately attested by some to be truths: whereof to confirme your probable conjectures, I shall give you that information which is come to my hands at severall times in these late yeares, which you, (if you shall thinke fit) may publish to the world, as I have received them, which to the probability of your conjectures adde so much light, that if the things which I shall relate be not meere fictions (which I assure you are none of mine, for you shall have them without any addition, as I have received them) none can make any further scruple of the truth of your assertion; but before I come to particulars, I shall tell you of some thoughts which are come upon this occasion into my minde, concerning Gods way of dealing with mens spirits for the manifestation of his truth and wisdome to those that seeke after it; and concerning the wonderfull contrivances by which he brings his counsell to passe beyond all mens thoughts: I have observed, and every one that will take notice must needs perceive, that the spirits of men in reference to spiritual matters, whether divine or humane (by humane, I meane all matters of science and industry depending upon judgement and sagacity) are distinguishable into two kinds, the one are stedfast to some principles, and the other are unstable; this distinction in divine matters is clear, from 2 Pet. 3. 17. Jude, ver. 3, 4, 6, 12, 13, 17, 18, 20, 21. and in humane matters wee need none other proofe but daily experience. Againe, these that are stedfast to their principles, will be found of two sorts; some are led in an ordinary common way and rest therein, admitting of nothing further then what they have attained unto; some (though they doe not undervalue the ordinary waies which in their owne kinds are usefull and necessary, yet they) aspire to something more then ordinary and rest not where they are, they believe that both in humane and divine matters, there is, as long as we are in this life, a plus ultra, and that we never ought

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to rest in seeking after the advancement of learning and the increase of knowledge, till wee shall come to see the Father of lights face to face; the different inclinations of these three sorts of men in the world, leading them to different courses and straines in their proceedings, and these begetting divers encounters amongst them wherein they disagree, and know not how to right matters towards one another for mutuall content and edification, are the causes of all our strife and confusion in all affaires, as well of Religious as of civill concernment; nor is it possible to be free from the disorders and distempers, which make the life of mankinde uncomfortable in this kind, and full of vexation, till God hath removed those that fall away from their owne stedfastnesse out of the earth, which will not come to passe till hee hath filled the earth with the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea; till hee hath brought us all that are stedfast unto true principles, and that walke by rules, unto the unity of the faith and knowledge of the sonne of God, unto a perfect man unto the measure of the stature of the fulnesse of Christ: which things because they are clearely promised, wee may expect shall come to passe, but till then we shall be carried differently about with severall winds of doctrine, and ensnared in our owne ignorance by the cunning craftinesse of men who lie in waite to deceive; for the unstable are either wickedly set to worke changes upon those that are setled for ends of their owne, or weakely carried up and downe through the uncertaine apprehensions of things differently represented unto them, sometimes one way and sometimes another; so that between the motions of mens spirits subtilly unstable tending to unsettle others, and weakely stable susceptible of any unsettlement from others, all our changes and disorderly carriages, both in divine and humane affaires doe arise; when either those that have no principles of truth to walke by, study lies to puzzle those that pretend to walke by rules, or those that have true principles vary from one another in their degrees of understanding, and in their manner of applying the same to advance knowledge, and to make discoveries of Gods manifestation of himselfe; for as these motions meet with one another in opposite courses, and men led thereby, stand by one another

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in disproportionat frames, or justle one another out of their places for contrary ends; so all our confusions and revolutions of Churches and States, and therein of scientificall straines, and of practicall undertakings, arise differently in the world: here then is a threefold diversity in acting, the changeable and moveable disposition of the one sort, is made to try the stability of the other two, and those that are setled in an ordinary way, are tryers to those that are led forth to something that is extraordinary; and those that upon allowed principles do rationally bring forth something more then ordinary, try the ingenuity of the other two, how farre they love truth for it selfe; So that each of these puts his neighbour to the triall of his property, and constraines him to manifest the nature of his way, how farre it is, or is not from God: And although every thing which is beyond the ordinary straine, is liable to be censured and contradicted by men of ordinary apprehensions. who condemne for the most part as extravagant and ridiculous whatsoever is not levell with their capacities; yet I am inclined to believe, that there is alwaies something of God in all men, that are led forth by extraordinary motions, namely when their spirits doe not reject the common true principles, and yet are raised above them, to apprehend conclusions and inferences which are not common; and when their affections are regularly constant to their workes, and their undertakings pursued with sobriety in the feare of God, then I conceive that God hath put upon them a speciall stampe and character of his vertue, by which he doth fit them for some designe and service whereunto he hath raised them. I have observed this in very many men of publike spirits, most commonly they have bin laught at by others for going out of the common road-way of acting; whether to make good some opinions, which others never dreamt of, or to doe some businesse which others have thought impossibilities to be effected; (I say) I have observed, that when they have been led forth with modesty, without selfe conceitednesse and vanity, and when they have prosecuted their enterprises with remarkable perseverance, that God hath made them one way or other remarkably instrumentall and usefull towards their generation for the advancement of his worke,

[ xxix ]

which is the reformation of this world, and the restauration of all things by the kingdom of Iesus Christ, whereunto all extraordinary gifts, and the unusuall leadings forth of mens spirits are preparatives. I could instance in severall men which I have known, and doe know abroad and at home, of severall professions, whose studies and endeavours have been lookt upon as whimsies and extravagancies by the road-way-men of that profession; and yet I am perswaded that they are led and acted by that Spirit which leadeth the children of God in all truth; and because other men otherwise rationall and observant, (who though not altogether destitute of the spirit, yet are not raised above the ordinary pitch) do not know the drift of the spirit of these; therefore these are lookt upon by them as men of odde conceits: I have seen some of the great Rabbies of our times, heretofore much scandalized at the proposals and undertakings of Mr Comenius; but it hath pleased God to assist him so with grace, and support him with constancy in his way, notwithstanding many trialls and temptations; that he hath been able during his ownelife, to see the usefulnesse of some of his endeavours, whereof a more full account will be given to the world very shortly. I could speake of others, whose attempts, though not so apparantly successefull during their life, yet no lesse usefull in their kind, and which in due time, will prove the grounds of great advantages and discoveries unto posterity, although in the generation where their lot is fallen to live, they have not been believed nor received. Gods way to dispence grace is not according to outward appearances, and for this cause, the multitude doth not entertaine the instruments thereof with due esteem, nor the meanes by which it is offered to the world with respect, because they come in a homely dresse, and without the affectation of any shew; neverthelesse wisdom at all times is justified by her children, and there take notice of her paths, and trace the counsell of God therein, for they can see that Gods waies and counsels reach from end to end, and that he comprehends in his aime both that which is past, and that which is present, and that which is to come in future ages; so that in the conclusion of all, he will make it appeare, that the unusuall motions of his servants, which the world have

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disesteemed and counted foolishnesse, have been the extraordinary worke of his Spirit in them, whereby he doth convince the world of sinne, of righteousnesse, of judgement: of sinne, because the testimony which they bore to the truth was not received; of righteousnesse, because they who served their generation faithfully with the righteous use of their talent in the midst of scorners, are justly taken away from an unthankfull generation and the evill day, to rest from their labours, that their workes may follow them; and of judgement, because the selfe conceited pride and partiality of the wise and prudent of this world, shall be judged and condemned by the worke of his spirit, when he shall bring all the effects thereof together to make out his compleate designe against the world, and by the conjunction of the seemingly scattered parts which his servants have acted upon their stages, produce the new frame of a perfect Scene, the catastrophe whereof shall make up a building fit for the kingdom of his Son.

I am fallen upon these thoughts, and acquaint you thus with them, partly to support mine owne spirit against the contradictions which I meet withall in the way wherein God hath set me, for the constant prosecution of peace and truth without partiality amongst my brethren; partly to apologize for the drift of your spirit, whereby I perceive you have been led these many yeares in some of your studies; for it is very evident to me, that you have sought after a matter, which to most men will seem incredible, rediculous and extravagant; and to tell you the truth, before I had read your discourse and seriously weighed matters, when I thought upon your theme, that the Americans should be of the seed of Israell, it seemed to me somewhat strange and unlikely to have any truth in it; but afterward when I had weighed your deduction of the matter, and lookt seriously upon Gods hand in bringing into those parts of the World where the Americans are, so many religious professors, zealous for the advancement of his glory, and who are possessed with a beliefe from the Scriptures, that all the Tribes of Israell shall be called to the knowledge of Jesus Christ, before the the end of the world: and when I had recollected and laid together some other scattered and confused thoughts

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which at several times I have received, partly from the places of Scripture, which foretell the calling of the Jewes, and their restitution to their owne land, together with the bringing back of the ten Tribes from all the ends and corners of the earth, partly from some relations which I had heard a few yeeres agoe concerning the ten Tribes, which the Jewes here in Europe had given out; and partly from the observations of Gods way, which he seemes to make by all these changes, and the dissolution of the States and Empires of the world, towards some great worke, and extraordinary revolution which may shortly come to passe: all which things when I had called to mind and represented unto my selfe, I was so far from derogating any thing from that which you have conjectured concerning the American Indians; that I beganne to stand amazed at the appearances of the probabilities which so many waies offered themselves unto me, to make out and confirme the effect of that which you have said: And then I begun also upon another account, to wonder at the strangenesse of Gods conduct over your spirit, that he should have set you a worke twelve or more yeeres agoe, after the search of such a matter, by historicall observations, whereof then so few, and almost no footsteps at all were extant to be traced, and whereof now, of a suddaine, the world is like to be filled with such evidences, that it wil be an astonishment to all that shall heare of it, and lay it to heart; and that all who have any ingenuity will be constrained to confesse, that indeed there is a God who ruleth in the earth, and that he hath ordered the affaires of the Nations by an universal providence, to bring to passe his own counsels, and that the things which hee hath revealed by his word, should in the latter times be accomplished; for to my apprehension, this will be the great benefit of these discoveries; namely, that the mouths of Atheists will be stopped, and convicted of irrationality and foolishnesse: For when it shall appear to all men undeniably, that the transmigration of Nations, and the affaires of this world, have not been carried hitherto by meere chance, or by the craftinesse of humane counsels, or by force; but by the wisdome of a Supreame conduct, who hath ordered all things from the beginning towards an end which hath been

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foreknown, and to a designe foretold. (I say) when this shall appeare, and that in the midst of all these changes and confusions, there is a conduct over-ruling the force of man, and disappointing the councels of the crafty; then the eyes of all men will be upon the Lord, and God alone will be exalted in righteousnesse, and the Holy one of Israell in judgement: For seeing it is evident that the ten Tribes of Israell have been as it were lost in the world neare about the space of two thousand yeeres, if now they should againe appeare upon the stage, first as it were in another world by themselves, and then afterward speedily come from thence hither to the land of their ancient inheritance, where they shall be joyned to their brethren the Jews (which is clearly foretold by the Prophets shall come to passe) if (I say) those things should now begin to come to passe, what can all the world say otherwise, but that the Lords counsell doth stand, and that he hath fulfilled the words spoken by his Servants the Prophets concerning Israel; that although all the sinfull kingdoms of the Nations shall be destroyed from off the face of the earth, yet that the house of Jacob shall not be utterly destroyed, but shall be corrected in measure, for loe I will command (saith God by the Prophet) and I will sift the house of Israell among all Nations, like as corne is sifted in the sieve, yet shall not the least graine fall upon the earth. These Prophecies must needs be fulfilled, if there be a God in heaven who hath foretold them, and when he shall make this his word good unto Israell, he will thereby make it undeniably apparent, that it was he himselfe and none other who did foretell it: and that it is also none but hee who brings the worke about beyond all humane appearances, according as he did foretell it: and by all this he will shew to all the world, that which he oft-times repeates by the Prophet Isaiah, that he alone is the Saviour, and that there is none besides him, Isa. 45. 5, 6, 15. till the end. The destruction then of the spirituall Babylon by the restauration of Israel, shall make out this to all the earth, that God alone is the Lord over all, and the Saviour of the people that put their trust in his name.

Now the appearances which offer themselves unto me, that these Prophecies are towards their accomplishment, are

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many, which now I shall not insist upon, (perhaps God will direct me to declare them in due season more fully then now I can intend) but I shall onely mention that which I find to be a confirmation of your conjecture, leaving it to your owne discretion, what use you will make of it.

First then I shall impart unto you some stories which I heard five or six yeeres agoe, when I was in the Low Countries, concerning the ten Tribes; and then I shall adde some information concerning the state of the Iewes in our Europaean and Asiatique worlds, which I have learned at other times by some providences which God hath offered unto mee; and upon the whole matter I shall leave you to your further conjectures, by that which I shall guesse at.

The first story which I heard was at the Hague, a person of chief quality about the Queen of Bohemia, and one of her Counsell, and a discerning godly man, and my speciall friend told me, that the Jew (a Jeweller residing ordinarily at the Hague ) whom I knew, had been there at Court, and with great joy had told, that they of his Nation had received from Constantinople Letters, bringing to them glad tidings of two speciall matters fallen out there; the one was, that the Grand Seignior had remitted the great taxes which formerly had been laid upon the Jewes of those parts, so that now they were in a manner free from all burthens, paying but a small and inconsiderable matter to that Empire; the other was, that a messenger was come unto the Jewes who reside neere about the Holy Land, from the ten Tribes, to make enquiry concerning the state of the Land; and what was become of the two Tribes and the half which was left in it, when they were transported from thence by Salmanasser. This Messenger was described to be a grave man, having some attendance in good equipage about him. He told them that the people from which hee was sent were the Tribes of Israel, which in the daies of Hosea the King, were carried captives out of their owne Land by the King of Assyria, who transported them from Samaria into Assyria and the Cities of the Medes; but they being grieved for the tronsgressions which caused God to be angry with them, they tooke a resolution to separate themselves from all Idolaters, and

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so went from the Heathen where they were placed by Salmanassar, with a resolution to live by themselves, and observe the Commandements of God, which in their owne Land they had not observed: in prosecuting this resolution, after a long journey of a yeere and six moneths, they came to a countrey wholly destitute of inhabitants, where now they have increased into a great Nation, and are to come from thence into their owne Land by the direction of God; and to shew them that hee was a true Israelite, hee had brought with him a Scroule of the Law of Moses, written according to their custome.

The Gentleman who told me this story, as from the mouth of the Jew, said that it brought to his mind fully (by reason of the agreement of circumstances almost in all things) the story which is recorded in the Second Booke of Esdras, which is called Apocrypha, Chap. 13. ver. 40. till 50. which will be found a truth if that Messenger came and made this Narrative. This was the first story; and not long after viz. Within the space of five or six moneths, a little before I came from the Low Countries, I was told of a Jew who came from America to Amsterdam, and brought to the Jewes residing there, newes concerning the ten Tribes; that hee had been with them upon the border of their Land, and had conversed with some of them for a short space, and seen and heard remarkable things whiles he stayed with them, whereof then I could not learn the true particulars; but I heard that a Narrative was made in writing of that which he had related, which before I went from Holland last, I had no time to seeke after, but since the reading of your Booke, and some discourse I have had with you about these matters, I have procured it from the Low Countries, and received a Copie thereof in French, attested under Manasseh Ben Israel his hand, that it doth exactly agree with the originall, as it was sent me, the translation thereof I have truly made without adding or taking away any thing; and because I was not satisfied in some things, and desired to know how farre the whole matter was believed among the Jewes at Amsterdam, I wrote to Manasseh Ben Israel, their chiefe Rabbi, about it, and his answer I have gotten

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in two Letters, telling me that by the occasion of the Questions which I proposed unto him concerning this adjoyned Narrative {This narrative so attested and translated, is at the end of this Book.} of Mr. Antonie Monterinos, hee to give me satisfaction, had written insteed of a Letter, a Treatise, which hee shortly would publish, and whereof I should receive so many Copies as I should desire: In his first Letter dated Novem. last, 25. he saies that in his treatise he handles of the first inhabitants of America, which he believes were of the ten Tribes; moreover, that they are scattered also in other Countries, which he names, and that they keepe their true Religion, as hoping to returne againe into the Holy land in due time.

In his second Letter, dated the twenty three of December, he saies more distinctly thus: I declare how that our Israelites were the first finders out of America; not regarding the opinions of other men, which I thought good to refute in few words onely: and I thinke that the ten Tribes live not onely there, but also in other lands scattered every where; these never did come backe to the second Temple, and they keep till this day still the Jewish Religion, seeing all the Prophecies which speake of their bringing backe unto their native Soile must be fulfilled: So then at their appointed time, all the Tribes shall meet from all the parts of the world into two provinces, namely Assyria and Egypt, nor shall their Kingdome be any more divided, but they shall have one Prince the Messiah the Sonne of David. I do also set forth the Inquisition of Spaine, and rehearse divers of our Nation, and also of Christians, Martyrs, who in our times have suffered severall sorts of torments, and then having shewed with what great honours our Jewes have been graced also by severall Princes who professe Christianity. I prove at large, that the day of the promised Messiah unto us doth draw neer, upon which occasion I explaine many Prophecies, &c.

By all which you see his full agreement with your conjecture concerning the Americans, that they are descended of the Hebrewes: when his booke comes to my hand, you shall have it God willing.

In the meane time I shall adde some of my conjectures concerning the Jewes which live on this side of the world with us in Europe and Asia; these are of two sorts or Sects, the one is

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of Pharisees, the other of Caraits, the Pharisees in Europe and Asia are in number farre beyond the Caraits, they differ from one another wheresoever they are, as Protestants doe from Papists; for the Pharisees, as the Papists, attribute more to the Authoritie and traditions of their Rabbies and Fathers, then to the word of God; but the Caraits will receive nothing for a rule of faith and obedience but what is delivered from the word of God immediately: and their name imports their profession, that they are readers of the Text, or Textuaries, for so the word [ --- ] you know when it relates to bookes and writings, is to be rendred. These two Sects are irreconcilably opposite to each other, and as the Papists deale with Protestants, so do the Pharisees with the Caraits, they persecute and suppres them and their profession by all the meanes they can possibly make use of: Nay as Mr Ritangle (of whom I have all the informations which I know concerning the Caraits) tels me, the hatred of the Pharisees is so fierce against their opposites the Caraits, that they have Anathematized them so, as never to be reconciled unto them; insomuch, that it is counted unlawfull so much as to speake to any of them, or to any that belongeth unto them, but at the distance of foure cubits at least; their Bookes and all things belonging to them, are avoided as things abominable and to be abhorred; nor will the Pharisees, although the Caraits should become penitent, and desire to be joyned to their Congregations, and renounce their owne way, admit of them as a Caraite reconciled unto them: but the Caraite must first become a Christian, a Mahumetan, or an Idolater, before he can be admitted to joyne with them, that it may never bee said that a Pharisee was reconciled to a Caraite, or that a Caraite is become a Pharisee. As their principles and affections are thus different, so are their opinions, and the course of their life extremely opposite; the Pharisees are full of superstitious imaginary foolish conceits, and thalmudicall questions and nicities in their Sermons and Bookes; the Caraits are rationall men that take up no doctrines but what the Scriptures teach, by comparing one text with another: The Pharisees have wild and extravagant fancies concerning the Messiah and his reigne; but the Caraits have true grounds of spirituall and raised thoughts

[ xxxvii ]

concerning the Messiah and his Kingdome, little different from that which the better sort of Christians truly believe, and professe of these misteries. The Pharisees in their Sermons insist upon nothing but their traditions and ceremonies, and foolish curiosities; but the Caraits insist onely upon necessary and profitable duties, teaching the way of Godlinesse and honesty, to bring men from the outward forme to the inward power and spirituall performance of divine worship.

As concerning their course of life, the Pharisees live every where by a way of trading & usury, which is destructive to those with whom they have commerce; but the Caraits abhor that way, as pestilent unto humane societies, and betake themselves to trades, and manufactures, to become husbandmen, and servants in the places where they live, and to serve as Souldiers under the Magistrate, who doth protect them.

This being the state and difference of these two Sects, (as he who in Asia and some part of Europe hath been above twenty yeers conversant with them, and a Doctor in their Synagogues, hath informed me) I shall acquaint you with my Conjectures concerning the event of our present troubles in the world over all, and the revolution of the Jewish state, which are these; that it is not unlikely to me that the issue and effect of these changes which now are wrought, and afoot to bee wrought in the world, (wherein the highest powers are shaken, and a generall distresse is brought upon all the Nations of the earth) will be a breaking of the yokes of tyranny and oppression, under which not onely the Jewes every where groan, but with them most of the Gentiles, or rather all of them that are under an arbitrary power of absolute Potentates, and superstitious selfe-seeking teachers; that the breaking of these yokes is already a great way advanced. First, in the Easterne China Empire by the invasion of the Tartarians. Secondly, in the Northerne and Easterne Mahometane Empire, by the changes brought upon, and likely to fall out in the Ottoman house and line; and by the liberty which of late hath been granted to the Jewes, not onely from taxes, but of repairing to Jerusalem, and having Synagogues there, which heretofore was utterly prohibited. Thirdly, in the Westerne, which is called the Roman

[ xxxviii ]

or German Empire, by these late troubles, and the assistance which the King of the North the Swede, hath given to Protestants to maintaine their liberty: All the power of these yokes must yet further be broken in the Supreame and Subordinate Ministers thereof; in respect of the whole bodies of these Empires, and of the particular Kingdomes and States which resort under the same; for all Nations by the light of naturall reason, but chiefely those, whom the Gospel hath enlightned, and prepared in a measure, to apprehend the hope of the glorious liberty of the Sonnes of God, will more and more every where resent their priviledge and right to a freedome, from which they have been restrained, by the mistery of iniquity in spirituall and corporall matters; and when the grounds of righteous order, of impartiall love to mankinde, and of common preservation, shall breake forth at last, and be taken notice of in the midst of these confusions and great troubles which fall upon all sorts of men; then the Jewes will come and appeare in their owne ranke, and for their own interest, they will by others be respected; for their interest will be upon the dissolution of the Mahometan, to resist and oppose the Spanish Monarchy, that it may not propagate it selfe Eastward, and Southward, beyond the Mediterranean Sea; and that the Inquisition by which they have been so cruelly persecuted, may be every where abolished; but above all things, kept out of the holy Land and their beloved City Jerusalem: If then there should be any transactions (as it is said there is like to be) between the Ottoman house and the house of Spaine about the Holy Land, the Jewes who are now at some liberty there, and begin from all parts of the Earth to lift up their eyes to looke thitherward, will quickely resent it, and finde their interest to be the enjoyment of their owne inheritance; and to helpe them to it, they will finde assistance from all Christians that are not slaves to superstition and tyranny, and that assistance and favour which by such Christians will be given them, may in Gods hand be a meanes to open the Pharisee his eyes, to see somewhat in Christianity, from which he hath been hitherto blinded, by reason of the prejudice which the Idolatry of the Papall Sea, and the Spanish Inquisition hath begotten in him. As for the Caraits, God

[ xxxix ]

hath so ordered it, that the greatest bodies of them are in the Northerne parts of the World, by which the ten Tribes, if ever they come to the Holy Land, are like to come; there be some few in Russia, some in Constantinople, some in Alcair, some in Persia, and some in other places of Asia and of Africa; but Mr Ritangle told me that their chiefe bodie is amongst the Asiatique and European Tartarians, who now appeare upon the stage as beginning to be conquerers. For besides that which they doe fully possesse in China, they have tasted somewhat of a victorious progresse of late in Poland, and they are the next pretenders to the Ottoman Crowne, if the line faile, which is like to be: their rising and dissipation abroad from their owne enters to their circumferences towards neighbour Nations, will weaken them at home; and if then, when they are not strong within their owne bounds, and by their invasions have weakened their neighbours Southward on; God call the ten Tribes to march toward the place of their inheritance: the Caraits their brethren will be leaders of them on their way, and so their march may be, as Manasseh Ben Israel saith, to make their Rendezvous in Assyria; and on the other side, the Jewes that are Pharisees, may make their Rendezvous from Arabia and other neighbouring places, and out of all Europe into Egypt; that so when the Shunamite shall returne (as it is said in the Canticles, chap. 6. ver. 13.) the world may looke upon her, and may see in her the company of two Armies, which both shall look towards Jerusalem. Then will the great battaile of Harmageddon be fought, whereunto all these troubles and changes are but preparatives: then shall the sword of the Spirit, the word of God, prevaile mightily over the spirits of all men; the two edges thereof on the right hand and on the left, will cut sharpe, and pierce to the dividing asunder of soule and spirit, and of the joynts and marrow, and to the discerning of the thoughts and intentions of the heart: and when this sword shall be thus powerfull in the hands of his Saints, (the true Protestants with the one troope, and the true Caraits with the other) then shall be fulfilled the Prophecie of the Psalmist, that vengeance shall be executed upon the Heathen, and punishments upon the people; that their Kings shall be bound with

[ xl ]

chaines, and their Nobles with fetters of iron; and that the honour due to all Saints shall be given them, to be made executioners of the judgement written in the word of God against them. We know not how neare these things are at hand, let us therefore be watchfull, and put on the armour of light, to be ready, when the Bridegroome comes, to goe with him in our wedding garment, having our lamps burning, and provision of oile, into the wedding chamber. And to this effect, the Lord teach us to be diligent, to be found of him in peace, without spot and blamelesse, that in the midst of these fightings and confusions, we may not be found as many are, smiting their fellow servants, eating and drinking largely of the spoile of those that are spoiled, and being drunken with the passions of malice, entertained for the revenge of injuries, or of covetousnesse and ambition, prosecuted for self-interests: and with this prayer I shall commend you to the grace of God, and rest,

Your faithfull friend and
          fellow labourer in
                   the Gospel of Christ.
       St Iames, this
       27 Ian. 1649/50.

[ xlii ]

Probabilities that the Americans be Jewes:


Part. 1.
Six severall
    Generall Introduction. Chap. 1.

1. Conjecture. Their own acknowledgement. Ch. 2.
2. Rites and customes in both alike, Common ceremonies such, Chap. 3.
    and solemn. Ch. 4.
3. Their words and manner of speech, as the Iewes, Chap. 5.
4. Their man-devouring. Chap. 6.
5. They have not yet been Gospellized. Ch. 7.
6. Their calamicies, as 28. Deut. Ch. 8.
Part 2.
Some contrary
reasonings removed.
1. In the Generall. Ch. 1.

2. Particularly, How,
    1. The Jewes should get into America. Chap. 1.
    2. So few empeople that great part of the world. Ch. 3.
    3. Become so predigiously barbarous. Chap. 4.
Part 3.
Earnest desires for
hearty endeavours to
make them Christian.
1. To the Planters.
    1. Cause of their removall. Chap. 1.
    2. Hope of the Natives Conversion. Chap 2.
    3. Directions to it. Chap. 3.
    4. Cautions about it. Chap. 4.

2. To the English there.
    1. In behalfe of the Planters, aspersions wiped off. Chap. 5. & 6.
    2. Towards the Natives conversion.
        1. Motives. Chap. 7.
        2. Helps. Chap. 8.
        3. Encouragements from our Countrymens pious endeavours there. Ch. 9.
        4. And the successe thereof upon the Indians. Ch. 10.

(Note: original footnotes, indicated by lower-case letters, will be added later.)

[ 1 ]

Jewes in America,

Probabilities that the Americans
are Jewes.


It hath been much, and many times, in several mens thoughts, what Genius devoted our Countrymen so willingly to forsake their Friends, and Nation, exposing themselves by voyages long and perillous to so many inconveniences, as are to be encountered with by Strangers in a forraigne and unchristian land; some were hastened by their dislike of Church Government; other perhaps were in hope to enrich themselves by such Adventures; and 'tis like, divers of them did

[ 2 ]

foresee those Epidemicall Calamities, now for so many years oppressing this forlorne Nation, following thereupon Solomons Counsell, A prudent man foreseeth the evill, and hides himselfe, &c. Prov. 22. 5. Or else those pious soules by a divine instinct, might happily bee stirred up to despite all hazards, that the Natives for their temporall accomodations might bee spiritually enriched by the English, and though this was little seen at first in the endeavours, at least the successe of many gone thither, yet who can tell but supreme Providence might then dispose mens hearts that way, themselves not discerning that influence; even as Cyrus promoted the cause of the Jewes, he knew not why, nor whence, Ecs. 45. 4, 5. Upon confidence that the Gospell of Christ shall be revealed in the midst of that yet most Barbarous Nation, the next desire was, of possible, to learne the Originall of the Americans, and by observations from Printed Books, and written Letters, and by Discourse with some that had travelled to, and abode in those parts severall years, the probability of that opinion as yet praeponderates, that the Westerne Indians be of the Jewish race. (a) R. Verstegan proves that Saxins to be Germans, because their speech is alike, the names of persons and things sometimes agree, and the Idols of them both are not different; Bodine (b) mentioneth 3 Arguments (b), by which the beginnings of People are discoverable, the faire and true dealing of Historians, the comparing of Language, with the description of the Country, such helps have assisted also in this enquiry: Grotius (c) conceiveth these Americans to have come out of Europe, passing from Norway into Iceland, thence by Friesland into Greenland, and so into Estotiland, which is part of that Western

[ 3 ]

Continent, hee is induced to that opinion from the names and words of places and things in both sounding alike: but Jo. de Laet (d) abundantly disproves this Conjecture, which yet the Governor of the Dutch Plantation (e) there told Mr. Williams was his judgement: Some others take them (f) to be a remnant of those Canaanites that fled out of that Land when the feare of Israel approaching thither fell upon them, Josh. 2. 9. Others thinke (g) it most probable, that they are Tartars, passing out of Asia into America by the straights of Anian. Emanuel de Moraes (h)willingly believes them to be derived from Carthaginians and Jewes; from which latter that they descended, these following Conjectures are propounded to Consideration.

The first Conjecture that the Americans are Jewes.

The Indians do themselves relate things of their Ancestors, (a) suteable to what we read of the Jewes in the Bible, and elsewhere, which they also mentioned to the Spaniards at their first accesse thither; and here the Speech of Myrsilus (b) occurred as observable: if we would know, saith hee, the Antiquity and Originall of a Nation, there is more credit to be given to the Natives and their Neighbors, than to strangers, and Casar (c) concluded the Britons to be Gaules, because that was the affirmation of them both. P. Martyr (d) tells at large, how Muteczuma the

[ 4 ]

great King of Mexico in his Oration made to his Nobles and People, minds his Country men, that they heard from their fore-fathers, how they were strangers in that land, and by a great Prince very long agoe brought thither in a Fleet, They boast their Pedigree from men preserved in the Sea by God himselfe, that God made one man, and one woman, bidding them live together and multiply, and how in a Famine hee rained bread for them from Heaven, who in a time of drought also gave them Water out of a Rock: many other things, themselves say were done for them, such as the Scriptures relate concerning the Israelites at their comming out of Aegypt, as, their Peregrination many yeares, the Oracles they received, their Arke of Bulrush, wherein Vitzi-Liputzli was included, of the Tabernacle the Ark (e) carried by fpure Priests, and how they pitched their Tents according to its direction, and who seeth not saith Malvenda (f) much probability that the Mexicans are Jewes, how could they else report the manner of their comming into the promised Land; they affirme there is one chiefe God, who hath been from all eternity, by whom the lesser Gods were made, who became Assistants in the Fabrick and Government of the World, as some of the (g) Rabbins also call the Angells Con-Creators with God, to whom the Lord did say, Let us make man in our Image, &c. Gen. 1. 26. The Indians judge the Sunne, Moone and Starres to be living creatures, a thing so avowed in the Jewish Talmud (h) shewing it to be a thing easie enough for the Heavens to declare the glory of God, Psalme 19. 1, seeing they have understanding soules as well as men and Angels; they (i) say of themselves, that they be strangers, and

[ 5 ]

came from another Country. Meraes (k) before named doth not only averre that many learned men in Brasile take the Natives to be Jewes, but that they themselves, taught by a most ancient Tradition, acknowledge their fore-fathers to be of that linage; and Peter Marytr (l) hath from them also such a kinde of assertion: And now whereas some conceive the ten Tribes to be either shut up beyond the (m) Caspian Mountaines, whence they could not get out, though they begged leave of Alexander the Great, yet the way was made miraculously unpassable against them, as the same Comester relateth: Others suppose (n) them to be utterly lost, and if once so, 'tis probable in the opinion of some that they are to be found in America; (o) Acosta acknowledgeth this to be the judgement of divers, to which he is not only adverse himselfe, but endeavours to answer their Arguments, as will be shewd hereafter; to these conjectures of the Natives, let this Chapter bee concluded with the judgements of two others, that have reason for what they say, the first is (p) Emanuel de Moraes, forespoken of, affirming those of Brasile to be Judaicail: First, because those Brasilians marrie into their owne tribe and Kindred. Secondly, Their Manner is also to call their Uncles and Ants, Fathers and Mothers. Thirdly, they are given much to mourning and teares in their Funerall solemnities: And last of all, they both have Garments much alike. The next is Master (q) R. Williams, one of the first, if not the first of our Nation in New England that learned the Language, and so prepared towards the Cobversion of the Natives, which purpose of his being knowne, hee was desired to observe if hee

[ 6 ]

found any thing Judaicall among them, &c. He kindly answers to those Letters from Salem in New England, 20th of the 10th moneth, more than ten yeers since, in hac verba. Three things make me yet suspect that the poore natives came from the southward, and are Jewes or Jewish quodammodo, and not from the Northern barbarous as some imagine. 1. Themselves constantly affirme that their Ancestors came from the southwest, and thither they all goe dying. 2. They constantly and strictly separate their women in a little Wigwam by themselves in their feminine seasons. 3. And beside their God Kuttand to the south-west, they hold that Nanawitnawit (a God over head) made the Heavens and the Earth, and some tast of affinity with the Hebrew I have found.

Second Conjecture.

The rites, fashions, ceremonies, and opinions of the Americans are in many ways agreeable to the custome of the Jewes, not onely prophane and common usages, but such as be called solemn and sacred.

Common and prophane Customs in both alike.

1. The Indians (a) weare garments fashioned as the Jewes, a single coate, a square little cloake, they goe barefoot: if you should aske a man of Brasile what vestment would please him best, he would answer presently,

[ 7 ]

(b) a long cloake the habit of the Jewes, and this may seem no light consideration to such as minde Seneca's (c) confidence, that the Spaniards planted themselves in Italy, for they have the same kind of covering on their heads, snd shooes for their feet.

2. They constantly (d) annoint their heads, as did the Jewes also, Luk. 7. 46.

3. They doe not onely pride themselves with eare-rings (e) but their noses are bored also, and have jewells hanging on them. which they call Caricori, like that is read, Esa. 3. 20, 21.

4. In all India (f) they wash themselves often, twice or thrice in the day, and the women in Brasile ten times saith Levius (g) and the Jewes were frequent in this, Mar. 7. 3, 4, Jo. 2. 6.

5. They delight exceedingly in dancing, (h) men and women, yea and women apart by themselves; and so they did in Israell, Exod. 13. 20, 1 Sam. 21. 11, 12, and thus especially after victories (i) and overthrows, of enemies, which is found also, Jud. 11. 34, Jud. 21. 21, 23, & 1 Sam. 18. 6, 7.

6. As the Jewes were wont to call them fathers and mothers, they were not their naturall parents, so (k) the Indians give the same appellation to Unkle and Aunts.

7. In America they eat no swines flesh (l) 'tis hatefull to them, as it was among the Jewes, Levit. 11.7, Esa. 66. 15.

8. They wash (m) strangers feet, and are very hispitall to them, and this was the known commendation of old Israell.

9. The Indians compute their times by nights (n) an use which Laet (o) confesseth they had from the Hebrews;

[ 8 ]

they reckon by lunary rules, giving the same name to their months they do to the Moon, Tona.

10. Virginity is not a state praise-worthy among the Americanes (p) and it was a bewaileable condition in Iury, Iud. 11. 37.

11. The Natives (q) marry within their owne kindred and family, this was Gods command to his people, Num. 36. 7.

12. The Indian women (r) are easily delivered of their children, without Midwives, as those in Exod. 1. 19.

13. They wash their infants newly born (s) and this you finde also, Ezek. 16. 9.

14. In faeminine seasons they put their women in a Wigwam by themselves, (t) for which they plead nature and tradition; another writes expresly such kind (u) of purification they have as had the Jewes.

15. The widdow marrieth (w) the brother of the deceased Husband, which was also Moses law, Mat. 22. 24.

16. Dowries for wives are given (x) by the Indians, as Saul enjoyned David, 1 Sam. 18. 25.

17. The husband hath power (y) over the adulterous wife, to turne her away with disgrace, they have also other causes of divorce, as was in Israel, Mat. 8. 19.

18. They nurse their owne children, (z) even the Queenes in Peru, and so did the mothers in Israel.

19. The husbands come not at their wives till their children be weaned, (a) such an use is read Hos. 1. 8. and at Peru if they be forced to weane them before their time, they call such children Ainsco, i. e. bastards.

20. Among the Indians they punish by beating,

[ 9 ]

and whipping, and the Sachims if they please, put offenders to death with their owne hands, and secretly sometimes send out an executioner, as Mark 6. 17, 2 Cor. 11. 25.

21. If a Brasilian wound another, (c) he must be punisht in the same part of his body, and with death, if the other die, for they also answer an eye for an eye, &c. as the law was. Deut. 24. 19.

22. When the master of the family dieth, he is buried in the middle of the house, (d) with his jewells, and other things he delighted in; the Spaniards were often made rich by such sepulchars, and Iosephus (e) tells of much treasure laid up even in Davids grave.

23. The Indians are given much to weeping, (f) their women especially, and at burialls; this was in fashion among the Jewes. Ier. 19. 17. Famous for this they were among the old heathen.

24. Balsamum (g) was peculiar to the Jewish Countrey, and thought to be lost long agoe saith Pliny; (h) if it were, tis now found againe in America.

25. Their Princes and Governours whom they generally call Sachims, Sachmos, Sagamos, (i) are no other but heads of families, as it was of old in Israel. Num. 7. 2.

26. The Indians have their Posts and Messengers that were swift of foot, whom they dispatch upon their affaires, and they ran with speed, and such were among the Jewes, 2 Sam. 18. 24, 26, 27.

[ 10 ]

Sacred and solemne rites and customes alike.

Acosta (a) affirmes the Americans to have ceremonies and customes resembling the Mosaicall. 1. Circumcision (b) is frequent among the Indians, which some not observing, have thereupon denyed them to be Judaicall, and Io. de Laet (c) is forced to acknowledge such venereous people have somewhat like to circumcision occasioned by their lasciviousnesse; but daily (d) experience declareth that they have indeed upon them this Judaicall badge. Herodotuse averreth the Colchi for this to be of the Aegyptian race, and that the Phenicians and Syrians of Palaestina learned from them that rite; and though some have judged the Tartars to be Jewes, because circumcised, others (f) yeeld not to this, because they were Mahometans by Religion, and from them received that custome; but these people have cut off their foreskinne time out of minde, and it cannot be conceived whence they had this ceremony, but that it is nationall. And though the fore mentioned (g) writer endeavours much to prove, that there is no circumcision among them, and that some other people be so handled, whom none yet ever imagined to be Judaicall, but that of Ier. 9. 26. is not so fitly I thinke cited for his purpose; and Grotius tells him (h) confidently, we have so many witnesses that the Americans be circumcised, as it becomes not a modest man to deny it; and among the rarities brought from those quarters, Pancirollus (i) speakes of stony knives, very sharpe and cutting,

[ 11 ]

and his Illustrator (k) H. Salmuth, shews that the Jewes of old did use such in their circumcising, knives of stone, which Sacrament omitted fourty yeeres in their travell, is revived by God's command to Joshua 5. 2, Make thee sharp knives, cultros petrinos; Arias Montanus reads, cultros lapideos in the vulgar Latine, but the Septuagint doth not only mention those rocky knives, but adds, taken from a sharpe rocke, as if the allusion also were to Christ, the Rocke, that doth circumcise our hearts; Lerius (l) affirmes he saw some of those cutting stones or knives at Brasil.

2. The Indians worship that God (m) they say, who created the Sun, Moon, and all invisible things, who gives them also all that is good.

3. They knew of that floud which drowned (n) the world, and that it was sent for the sin of man, especially for unlawfull lust, and that there shall never be such a deluge againe.

4. It is affirmed by them (o) neverthelesse that after many yeers, fire shall come down from above and consume all.

5. They beleeve the immortality of the soule, and that there is a place of joy, (p) another of torment after death, whither they shall goe that kill, lie, or steale, which place they call Popogusso, a great pit, like the expression, Num. 16. 33. and Rev. 19. 1, &c. but they which do no harme shall be received into a good place, and enjoy all manner of pleasure.

6. The Americans have in some parts an exact form of King, Priest, (q) and Prophet, as was aforetime in Canaan.

7. Priests are in some things among them, as with the Hebrewes, (r) Physitians, and not habited as other

[ 12 ]

men, and in Tamazulapa there be vestments kept like those Aaroniticall robes of the High-priest.

8. The Temples wherein they worship, (s) sing, pray, and make their Offerings, are fashioned and used as with the Jewes; at Mexico they were built foure square, and sumptuous, as Ezek. 40. 47.

9. The Priests have their Chambers (t) in the Temple, as the manner was in Israel. 1 Reg. 6, 7.

10. They had places also therein (u), which none might enter into but their Priests. Heb. 9. 6, 7.

11. In their worship of Viracoche (w), and the Sun, &c. they open their hands, and make a kissing sound with their mouthes, as Iob 31. 27.

12. They had almost continuall fire before their Idols, and took great care lest the (x) fire before the Altar should dye, they call that the Divine Harth, where there is fire continually, like that in Leviticus 6. 9.

13. None may intermeddle with their Sacrifices but the Priests, (y) who were also in high estimation among them as they were among the Jewes.

14. Every Noble-man in Mexico (z) had his Priest, as Israel had the Levites within their gates.

15. In their necessities (a) they always sacrificed, which done, they grew hopefull and confident.

16. They burnt Incense, (b) had their Censars, and cake Oblations, as Ier. 7. 18.

17. The first fruits of their Corne (c) they offered, and what they gat by Hunting and Fishing.

18. At Mexico and some other places (d) they immolate the bodies of men, and as the Jewes of old, saith P. Martyr, did eate of their Beasts so sacrificed, they feed on mans flesh so offered.

[ 13 ]

19. In all Peru they had but one Temple, (e) which was most sumptuous, Consecrated to the Maker of the world; yet they had foure other places also for Devotion, as the Jews had severall Synagogues, beside that their glorious Temple.

20. The Idols of America (f) were Mitred, in a manner, much as Aaron was.

21. A yeare of Jubile (g) did they observe, as did Israel also.

22. Lerius tells a story of them, (h) much like that of Apocryphall Bel, and the Dragon, and his Priests.

23. In their Idoll services they (i) dance and sing, men and women, almost as Miriam, with Timbrells, Exod. 15. 20. and then they offer bread, as it is in Malac. 1. 7.

24. They have hope of their bodies (k) resurrection, and for that cause are carefull in burying their dead; and when they saw the Spaniards digging into Sepulchers for gold and silver, the Natives entreated them not to scatter the bones, that so they might with more ease be raised againe.

25. The Indians make account the world shall have an end, but not till a great drought come (l), and as it were a burning of the aire, when the Sunne and Moone shall faile, and lose their shining; thence it is, that in the Eclipses of those two greater Lights, they make such yellings and out-cries, as if the end of all things were upon them.

[ 14 ]

The third Conjecture.

The American words and manners of speech, bee in many things consonant to those of the Jewes, (a) Seneca hath that other reason, perswading that the Spaniards planted in Italy, because they both speake alike; and as Volaterrane (b) for his Countreymen, so some suppose the Greeks long since mingled with the Brittans, because we still have divers words of Graecian Idiome. For this reason (c) Caesar judged the British to bee Gauls, in that the Cities of both the Nations were called by the same names. Giraldus Cambrensis derives his Countreymens Originall from Troy, because they have so many Trojan names and words amongst them; Oenus, Resus, Aeneas, Hector, Ajax, Evander, Eliza, &c. and Grotius (d) therefore imagines that the Americans came from Norway, because they have many words the same with the Norwegians. It is then considerable to our purpose, how in this the Jewes and Indians be alike.

1. The aspirations of the Americans have (e) the force of consonants, and are pronounced by them not as the Latines and some other Nations, but after the manner of the Hebrewes.

2. The name of that great City Mexico (f) is observed in sound and writing to come very neare unto that name of our deare Lord, Psalme 2. 2. Meschico , and Mexico in their Language is a (g) Spring, as of our Master and Messiah; the day spring that from on high hath visited us. Luk. 1. 78.

[ 15 ]

3. The Ziims mentioned Esa. 13. 21. and 34. 14. are (h) supposed to bee wicked Spirits, deluding Mankinde, as Hobgoblins, Fairies, &c. Such are the Zemes among the Indians so often spoken of by (i) Peter Martyr, these they call the Messengers of the great God; every King among them hath such a Ziim or Zeme, and from them came those Predictions constantly current among them, of a cover'd Nation that should spoyle their Rites.

4. Acosta marvailes much (k) at the Indians, that having some knowledge that there is a God, yet they call him not by any proper name, as not having any peculiar for him, a Relique it may be of that Judaicall conceit of the non-pronuntiable Tetragrammaton.

5. Tis very remarkable that Escarbotus (l) tells, how he heard the Indians often perfectly use the word Hallelujah; at which hee marvailed the more, because hee could not at all perceive that they had learned it from any Christian; and this is with like admiration recorded (m) by the describer of Nova Francia.

6. In the Island of St. Michael or Azores, which belongs to America, saith (n) Malvenda, certaine Sepulchers, or Grave-stones are digged up by the Spaniards, with very ancient Hebrew Letters upon them, above and below, thus above, [ -- ---- ] Why is God gone away; and beneath this Inscription [ -- ---- ----- ] Hee is dead, know God, which words seem to have a woefull enquiry of Gods departure from them, with a comfortable Declaration of his dying for them, together with an incitation to know him.

7. Very many of their words are like the Hebrew, which our Novangles (o) have observed, and in the general attested: A more serious disquisition into their Language

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would conduce much to find out their decent, and helpe exceedingly towards their Conversion; and if it be said, the Jewes were ever tenacious of their Language, which (p) Elias Levita saith, they changed not in Aegypt, but if they be now in America, all in a manner is lost. 'Tis fit then to consider, that in all Nations, in two or three Ages there is a great alteration in their Tongues; the words of the League between the Carthaginians and Romans in fifty yeares space, sayth (q) Polybius, were so uncouth, and little knowne, that they could scarce bee understood; and (r) Keckerman sheweth, (r) that the German language in almost as short a time received the like mutation, and our Saxon Ancestors translated the Bible into English as the Tongue then was, but of such antique Words and Writing, that few men now can read and understand it, which waxing old, and hard, it was againe Translated into newer words, saith Arch-Bishop (s) Cranmer, and many even of those words are now strange and [uneasie] to us; in such suddaine Change of Language universally, wee need not wonder, that so little impression of the Hebrew Tongue remaines among them, if the Indians be Jewish; but wee may marvaile rather, that after so many yeares of most grosse and cursed blindnesse, and having no commerce, nor converse with other Nations, that any the least similitude thereof should be left.

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The [fourth] Conjecture.

This which followeth next, at first sight, will appeare a Paradox rather than a Probability, that is [ -------- ] Americanorum, the Man-devouring that is in America; for what an inference may this seem to bee; there bee Carybes, Caniballs, and Man-eaters among them, therefore they be Jewish? But let it be considered, Among the Curses threatned to Israel upon their disobedience, wee read Levit. 26. 29. Yee shall eate the flesh of your Sonnes and of your Daughters, &c. So Deut. 28. 53. Which Predictions, according to common supposalls, seeme to be fully verified in the Famine mentioned, 2 Kings 6. 28. and Lament. 4. 10. and those words are spoken of things then done and past; but the Prophet Ezekiel, that lived about the same time, speakes in the future tense of some new, and till then unheard of calamity, but such as should bee common afterward; I will doe in thee that I never did before, for in the midst of thee the Fathers shall eat their Sons, and the Sons their Fathers, &c. Ezek. 5. 9, 10. Before indeed, and at the Romans beleaguering Ierusalem, Women did eate their Children, but there is no relation of Fathers and Sonnes devouring one another, though this be foretold, and as a thing easily to bee taken notice of, (a) Iosephus in that last siege tells but of one Woman eating her childe, and 'tis like there was no other, because the whole City was astonish'd at the newes, and the seditious themselves did abhorre it; yea and when the Romans heard thereof in their Campe, it exceeded

[ 18 ]

credit at first, and their Generall comforted himselfe against that most inhumane and hideous fact, by remembring he had often proffered them peace, and they had as often wilfully refused it; but that Prophet foretells an infelicity without parallel, both de praeterito, and de futuro; I will doe in thee that I never did before, neither will I ever doe the like, Verse 9. And it should be a publick and notorious calamity, for in the midst of thee the Fathers should eate their Sonnes, and their Sons their Fathers, Ver. 10. Words implying, yea expressing more than wee can read was done, either when the Chaldees or Romans begirt their City: And the glosse of St. Ierome (b) strengthens this conjecture; When the Fathers, saith he, did eate the Sonnes, or the Sonnes their Fathers, is not related in any History, and yet it was to be done openly in the midst of them, and as it were in the sight of the Sunne. But if the Jewes bee planted in that Westerne World, we shall soone find the accomplishment of that Prophecie from Heaven, for (c) there be Caniballs and Man-eaters in great multitudes; some whose trade is Homo cupium, & Homo capium, hungring and hunting after Mans flesh, and devouring it, whose greedy bellies have buried Millions of them, these Carybes are scattered all the Countrey over, the Mauhacks are such, and so neare they are, or were to some of our (d) Planters, that finding an Englishman, they eate one part of him after another, before his face, while he was yet alive. If it be said, they eate none but strangers, or enemies, not Fathers their Sonnes, & à contra, (f) Peter Martyr removes that scruple, by affirming, if they want the flesh of Foes and Forraigners, they eate then one another, even their owne (g) kinred & allies, as he writes that added the Centons to (h) Solinus.

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If it be objected, those Caniballs are of a different Nature and Nation from the rest, Peter Martyr answers that also, supposing all the Inhabitants to bee of one stock, because they use all one and the same kind of Bread, every where called Maiiz, and their Cymbae Uni-ligneae, their Canoes and Boats are in all places alike, and as (i) those Western Nations generally call their Boats Canoes, and their Bread Maiiz, so their common word for wine is Chichia, for swords Macanas for Kings Caciques.

And if the Americans bee Jewish, the Spaniards have yet in another sense fulfilled that Prediction of Ezekiel, for their owne Bishop (k) Bartholomeus de las Casas writes, how they tooke Indians 10000, sometimes 20000 abroad with them in their Forragings, and gave them no manner of food to sustaine them, but the Flesh of other Indians taken in Warre, and so Christian-Spaniards set up a shambles of mans flesh in their Army; children were slaine and roasted, men were killed for their hands and feet sakes, for those they esteemed the onely delicate parts: this was most hideous and most barbarous inhumanity, the Tidings whereof was soone carryed through the Land, and overwhelmed the Inhabitants with Horror and Astonishment.

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Fifth Conjecture.

The people that have not yet received the Gospell of Jesus Christ are Jewes, but the Americans have not yet been gospelized; and here three things come to consideration.

1. All other nations at first received the Gospell.

2. The Jewes before the end of the world shall be converted.

3. These Indians have not yet heard of Christ.

1. As the Scripture foreseeing that God would justifie the Gentiles through faith, preached before the Gospell unto Abraham, saying, in thee shall all the Gentiles be blessed, Gal. 3, 8. Gen. 12. 2, 3. 18. 8. In like manner the glorious Gospell was soon conveyed to them, soon after the comming of Christ, even before the death of the Apostles; holy David spake of this promulgation, when he said, Psal. 19. 1. The Heavens, i. e. the Apostles did declare the glory of God, &c. For the fourth, Their line is gone out into all Lands, and their words into the end of the world, is applied by Saint Paul to this very purpose, Rom. 10. 18. It was the command of their Master, Goe teach all Nations, &c. Mat. 28. 19. and preach the Gospell to every creature, Mar. 16. 15. and they gave hereto most willing obedience, which we must have believed, though it had not bin so exactly recorded in undoubted ecclesiasticall Histories.

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There we read often (a) that they divided the world into 12 parts, every Apostle accepting that which fell to his lot; but first they compiled the Creed, called therefore [ ------ ] or Collation, saith Cassian, (b) who was Chrysostomes Scholar; because that which was at large expressed in the severall volumes of the Bible, was by them briefly contracted into that forme; and to this he applieth that of the Apostle, Rom. 9. 28. a short worke we read it now, but of old it was rendred, verbum abbreviatum a short word, a short rule, to which all of them were to conforme their doctrine, and the fifteenth of Iuly was afterwards, and is still celebrated by (c) some Christians, in memory of their thus going to Gospellize the world; and it is called Festum divisionis Apostolorum: yea and the place is yet shewed to Travellers at this day, (d) where they are said to assemble upon this occasion. Very (e) many ancient writers, historicall and others, (f) agreeing with Vigilius in this, Authenticum symbolum quod Apostoli tradiderunt; and a little before he blameth some for venting such doctrines, as were neither (g) delivered by the Prophets, nor had the authentique authority of the Apostles Creed, and yet suppose it dubious whether that Symboll be indeed of Apostolicall constitution; and that they did not so divide the world to further their worke, which is so confidently avouched by the ancient, together with the Countries where each of them had their portion; yet we are sufficiently assured such was their commission, which they pursued with exactnesse and successe; so that in their life time by their diligence the whole earth was enlightned: Thus Saint Paul tell his Romans, 1. 8. Their faith was published through the whole world; the same is said to the Collossians also, 1. 6. and [ ------- ]

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is used in neither place, lest curiosity should restraine it to the Roman World, but [ -- ---- --- --- ], is the former expression, and the latter is [ -- ---- --- --- ] in the whole and every part of the world; and is it not considerable, as the injunction was, preach the Gospell to every creature, as was before remembred from Saint Marke, 16. 5. So Saint Paul avoweth that in his time it was preached to every creature, Col. 1. 23. such was then the use of that word; the name creature was especially given to man, the chiefe of all creatures below.

And this is unanimously acknowledged by the next writers, Ignatius (h) thought to be that little child called by Christ Mat. 18. 1. hath this expression [ -- ---- --- --- ], There (i) is one Church which the Apostles setled from one end of the earth to another in the bloud of Christ, by their sweat and labour. Tertullian (k) in the following Century affirmes that the Gospel in those very first times went beyond the Roman Monarchy, even to us Britons; and (l) Eusebius sheweth how the doctrine of salvation by divine power and cooperation, was carried into all the world: and Iulius Firmicus Maturnus (m) professeth that in his time 1300 yeeres since, there was no Nation under Heaven, East, West, North, or South, unto whom the Sunne of the Gospel had not shined; and not onely in all the Continent, but in every Island saith Greg. Nissene; Thus (n) Bernard also, and others; for when the Jewish fleece was dried up, all the world saith Ierome (o) was sprinkled with that heavenly dew.

2. The Jewes before the end of the world shall be converted to Christianity; this truth is to be found in the Old and New Testament, and hath bin the constant

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beliefe of the faithfull in every age. The children of Israell shall remaine many daies without a King, and without a Prince, &c. Hos. 3. 4. yet Ver. 5. afterward they shall convert, and seeke the Lord their God, and David their King, i. e. Christ the Sonne of David the King of his Church, thus Zephan. 3. 8, 9, 10, 11. Zach. 12. 10, 11, &c. and some predictions in that Evangelicall Prophet Esay. Saint Paul applies to this very purpose, Rom. 11. 26, 27. from Esa. 59. 20. & 27. 9. yea and our common Master Christ telleth us, Ierusalem shall be trodden under foot of the Gentiles, untill the time of the Gentiles shall be fulfilled, Luke 21. 24. So Saint Paul, when the fulnesse of the Gentiles is come in, all Israell shall be saved, Rom. 11. 25. Some by Israell here would understand, Israell according to the spirit, that is, the Elect from all the Nations: but all along the Jewes and Gentiles are spoken of as distinct people according to the flesh, so all Israell shall be saved, that is, (p) a very great and numerous company, or many from every tribe, as we use to say genera singulorum, not singuli generum, or all the elect of them; for when their heart shall be turned to the Lord, the veile shall be taken away, 2 Cor. 3. 16. Ancient Christians have subscribed to this; In the end of the world saith Ierome (q) the Jewes receiving the Gospel, shall be enlightned, thus Augustine (r), Gregory (s), Bernard (t), Primasius (u), this was, this is the common opinion of Christians.

Coepitah his, defertur ad hos, referetur ad illos (w) Nostrafides, & erunt submundi fine fideles.

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From the Jewes our faith began,
To the Gentiles then it ran,
To the Jewes returne it shall,
Before the dredfull end of all.

3. The third consideration hath a twofold branch.

1. The Americans have not, but 2. shall be acquainted with Christianity: and to the first all are not of this mind that the Indians have not heard of the Gospell: for (x) Osiander speaking of Vilagagno, and his planting there in Brasil, writes confidently, without doubt those people received the Gospel of Christ by the preaching of the Apostles 1500 yeeres since, but they lost it againe by their unthankfulnesse; and Malvenda (y) allegeth some conjectures that Christianity might have been among them, but these are so few, and so forced, that himselfe supposeth them rather satanicall suggestions, illusions, and imitations, than remembrances indeed of the Gospell.

There be (z) some records where every one of the Apostles planted the faith of Christ, in what Nations and Kingdomes, but they are all silent touching this part of the world, which indeed was not knowne till of late; yea some (a) conceive, they had no being at all in former ages, and that there was not so much as land or earth in those places; however questionlesse they be but of late discovery; for though some (b) will have America to be those Atlantique Islands mentioned by Plato, others that the Phaenicians arived thither more than 2000 yeeres since, and some further improbable conjectures there be, 'tis concluded neverthelesse by many judicious and observant men, that it was never

[ 25 ]

heard of in this world, till (c) Christopher Columbus of Genoa brought newes thereof about 1590 [sic - 1490?]. when then, or by whom should they be made Christians? is it credible there should be no records thereof in the Annalls of any Nation? Could so great a part of the world become Christians, without any whispering thereof to any other; is it likely that all Gospel-impressions should be utterly obliterate among them? all the light thereof quite extinguished? and not so much as the least glimpse thereof remaine? as is also acknowledged by him (d) that hath written and observed so much of these nations.

2. Seeing they were never yet enlightned, without question they shall be, for the Gospell of the Kingdome must be preached every where for a witnesse to all Nations, Mat. 24. 14. Surely so large a part of the world shall not alwaies be forgotten: Is it imaginable that the God of mercy, who is [ ------- ], a lover of soules, Wisd. 11. 23. should suffer so great a portion of mankind everto remaine in darknesse, and in the shadow of death? Is it credible or fit to be believed, that the wisdome of the Father who taketh his solace in the habitable parts of the earth, and his delight is to be with the children of men, Prov. 8. 31. should have no compassion of such an innumerable multitude of soules? The earth was inhabited (e) by degrees, from the place where Noahs Ark rested they went as the Sunne, from the East, and so planted themselves forward; and the progresse of the Gospell saith (f) Eusebius, was in the same manner, and for this there is more than allusion in Psal. 19. 5. compared with Rom. 10. 18. That Westerne part of the world was last inhabited, and it shall heare of Christ also in due time, as certainely as there be people to receive

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him, for he shall be salvation [ -- ---- --- --- ] to the last end of the earth, Act. 13. 47. And the Americans have a tradition among themselves, (g) that white and bearded Nations shall subdue their Countries, abolish all their rites and ceremonies, and introduce a new religion.

The sixth Conjecture.

The Americans calamities are suitable to those plagues threatned unto the Jewes, Deut. 28. Such a comment upon that terrible Scripture is not any where to be found, as among the Indians, by this also it will appear probable that they be Jews: and here three things shall be touched upon. 1. The Jewes were a very sinfull people. 2. The Indians were and are transcendent sufferers. 3. In that way [ ---- ] litterally, as was threatned to the Jewes.

1. The Jewes were grand offenders; (a) Galatinus mentions some of their enormous transgressions, with their ensuing vengeances. 1. The selling of Ioseph into Egypt, where themselves were kept afterward in an iron furnace, and dwelt a long time in an house of bondage. 2. Their first rejection of the Messiah, typified in David, 2 Sam. 20. 1. which was punished by the Assyrians. 3. The sacrificing of their owne children to Idols, and murthering the Prophets that deterred them from such abominations, he calls their third great offence, for which the Babylonian captivity fell upon them. 4. Their fatall and most grievous crime was

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the denyall of the Holy one, and the just, with desire that a murtherer should be given them, Act. 3. 14. and this brought upon them, first the tyranny of the Roman conquest, and then all those hideous and horrid tribulations that presse and oppresse them to this day.

2. The Natives of America have endured the extremities of most unspeakable miseries: They are a Nation saith Lerius (b) cursed and forsaken of God, and the men of Spaine to their other cruelties added that most abominable reproach, these Barbarians are (c) dogs, unworthy of Christendome; tis too true they were so used by them, as if they had bin such or worse, they did so weare them up with labour, that they became weary of their lives, the poore creatures chusing rather to die any kind of death, than to live under such bloody Masters and Monsters; they scared the Indians into woods, where the men and women hanged themselves together, and wanting instruments sometimes for such selfe-execution, they helped one another to knit their long locks about the branches of trees, and so cast themselves downe headlong, their owne haires being their halters; and thus many thousands of them ended their daies with most lamentable yellings and out-cries; their intestine violences and injuries among themselves were woefull by rapine, warre, and sacrificings of one another, many (d) thousands of them have been immolated in one day at Mexico; but their sufferings by the spaniards exceed not onely all relation, but beliefe, and surely the savages could not have outstripped the Spaniards in barbarous savagenesses, if those Infidells had gotten the upper hand of these Christians; a very prudent Cacique saith Benzo (e), that was neere an hundred yeeres old, reported freely, that when he was young, a very

[ 28 ]

strange disease invaded those countrys, the sick commonly vomited many filthy wormes, such a wasting plague he said followed this calamity, that we feared none of us could survive it: and a little before your comming we of Iucatana had two cruell battailes with the Mexicans, in which above one hundred and fifty thousand were slaine, but these were all light and easie vexations, in respect of those terrible examples of intollerable insolence, avarice, and cruelty, exercised by your selves upon us; thus he: we read, when the Prophet of God foretold Hazael, the evill bee should bring upon Israel Hazael said, Is thy servant a dog that he should doe this? 2 King. 8. 13. But the Spaniards did more evill things to the Indians, and shewed themselves with shame to be worse than dogs, witnesse that bloody Bezerill, though not so bloody as his Master Didacus Salasar (f), who set that his Mastiffe upon an old woman, employed by himselfe, as he feigned with letters to the Governour, who seeing the cruell curre, by his more cruell Masters setting on, with open mouth comming upon her, falls to the ground, bespeaking him in her language, sir dog, sir dog, I carry these letters to the Governour, holding up to his view the seale, be not angry with me, sir dog, the Mastiffe as becalmed by that begging posture and language, abates his fiercenesse, listes up his leg, and besprinkles the woman, as dogs use to doe at the wall: the Spaniards that knew well his curstnesse at other times, saw this with astonishment, and were ashamed to hurt the woman, that so cruell a dog had spared.

3. The Indian sufferings have runne so parallell with those threats, Deut. 28. as if they had been principally intended therein also. Was Israel offending to be calamitous, in all places, towne and field, at home and

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abroad, &c. The poore Indians (g) for their gold and labour, were by the Spaniards hunted out of all places, corners and Islands, as if the end of their discovery had been indeed to make a full end, and a totall devastation of the American Nations. Against the sinning Jewes it was said, Cursed shall be the fruit of thy body, &c. vers. 18. The pestilence shall cleave unto thee, &c. The Lord shall smite thee with a consumption, &c. ver. 21, 22, 35, 29. Strange diseases have destroyed the Natives, as the histories of those countries doe relate; their cruell taskmasters the Spaniards, did so much overburthen them with load and labour, that the (h) cohabitation of man and wife did cease: seven thousand infants of Cuba did perish in three moneths space, their mothers worne out with toyling had no milk to give them. The Lord said, He would smite Israeel with blindnesse, madnesse, and astonishment of heart, and thou shalt grope at noone day, as the blind gropeth in darknesse, &c. ver. 28. 29. And woefull indeed is the veile of ignorance that is come over the Natives (i); they imagined the Island Hispaniola to be a living creature, eating and digesting like a monster: that vast sea-den or hollow place which they call Guacca-jarima, is the voider of its excrements, a fancy like that antique fable of the Demogorgon lying in the wombe of the world, whose breath causeth the flux and reflux of the sea: the darke part of the Moone (k) they take to be a man throwne thither, and tormented for incest with his owne sister, whose eclipse they guesse to be caused by the Sunnes anger; those responsalls of the aires reverberation, which we call eccho, they suppose to be soules, wandring thereabouts. How were those poore creatures astonish'd, when they saw themselves torne by (l) Spanish dogs, whose Masters

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would borrow quarters of Indians, men and women, for their hounds, and as commonly expose them to such a kind of death and buriall, as if men and women had bin made for dogs meate? how were they affrighted when the feare of Spanish cruelties provoked fathers, mothers, children, to hang themselves together? that Bishop knew of two hundred and more so perishing by the tyranny of one Spaniard. No (m) marvaile therefore if when the Fryer told Hathuey, the Cacique, of heavens happinesse, and the torments of hell, and hee understanding upon enquiry that the Spaniards dying went to heaven, because they were Christians, let my lot saith he fall in hell rather than with that most cruell people. God said of the Jewes, They should be oppressed and spoyled evermore, ver. 29. thou shalt betroth a wife, and another shall lie with her, ver. 30. you shall be left few in number, though yee were as starres for multitude, &c. ver. 62. And these Americans were made by the Spaniards every where and every way miserable, without any helpe or reliefe: Barthol, las Casas upon fourty two yeeres sight of their suffering, sympathized so much with them, that he represented the same to King Philip, in hope to obtaine for them some favour and mercy, but he little prevailed. One of them boasted of his care to leave as many Indian women as he could with child, that in their sale he might put them off to his better profit: from (n) Lucaios to Hispaniola, about seventy miles, dead carkases were cast so abundantly into the sea, that they needed no other direction thither; and wee know it for truth, saith hee, that Countreys longer than all Europe and a great part of Asia, by horrid cruelties were destroyed, and more than twenty Millions of the Natives perished; (o) yea in Hispaniola alone, scarce one hundred

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and fifty, of two millions were left alive. In another place hee professeth their tyranny was so cruell and detestable, that in fourty six yeeres space they caused, he verily believed, more than fifty millions of them to pay their last debt to nature; for I speak, saith hee, the truth, and what I saw: they dealt with the poore Indians, not as with beasts, hoc enim peroptarem, but as if they had bin the most abject dung of the earth: and is this the way saith Benzo to convert Infidels? Such kindnesse they shewed to other places also, Cuba, Iamaica, Portu ricco, &c. It was said against Israell, Cursed shall thy basket be, and thy store, ver. 17. the fruit of thy land, the encrease of thy cattle. ver. 18. all shall be devoured by enemies and other Nations, &c. ver. 30, &c. For very much is said of their suffering in riches and honour &c. And the Spanish Christians that brake into America shewed themselves so covetous of their treasure, that the Natives with wonder said (p) surely gold is the Spaniards God; they broiled noble Indians on gridirons, to extort from them their hidden wealth, giving no respect at all to their Caciques or Kings. Memorable in (q) many respects is the History of Attabaliba the great King of Peru, who being conquered and captivated by Francis Pizarro, redeemed his liberty by the promise of so many golden and silver vessels, as should fill the roome where they were so high as one could reach with his hand, and they were to take none away till he had brought in the whole summe; expecting thereupon according to covenant his freedome and honour, he dispatched his officers and servants with great care and diligence, and did faithfully performe his bargaine, in bringing that vast heape of treasure together; but they resolve neverthelesse most impiously

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to murder him, though with many arguments and tears he pleaded for his life, desiring sometime to be sent unto Caesar, then expostulating with them for their perfidiousnesse and falsehood, but neither words nor weeping, nor their owne inward guilt could mollifie those hard hearts, they sentence him to death by a rope, and the cruell execution followed; but (r) Benzo observed a miraculous hand of vengeance from heaven upon all that gave consent thereto: so that as Suetonius (s) records of Caesars stobbers, Nullus corum sua morte defunctus est, every one of them found that consultation and contrivance fatall; Almager is hanged, Didacus his sonne is slaine by Vacca de Castro, the Indians kill Iohn Pizarro at Cusco, who fell upon Fryar Vincent also of the green valley, and slew him with clubs in the Isle Puna, Ferdinandus Pizarro was sent into Spain, where he consumed his daies in a prison, Gonsallus Pizarro was taken by Gasca and hewen in pieces, and Francis Pizarro that was the President, and gave judgement, died an evill death also, being slaine by his owne Countrey men in that strange land; so just was God in avenging so perfidious a regicide and King-murder, so ominous was their presumption against the honourable, vile swine-herds sentencing so great a King to so foule a death: those are his words, in whom, and his interpreter (t), he that please may read further, those murderers were base in birth and life, and they instance in despicable particulars.

It were endlesse to mention all the parallels that the Spaniards have drawne upon the poore Indians, according to the threats of God upon the sinning Jewes, Deut. 28. 43, The stranger that is within thee shall get up above thee very high, and thox shalt come downe very low. 48.

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Thou shalt serve thine enemy in hunger, and thirst, and nakednesse, and in want of all things, and he shall put a yoake of iron upon thy necke till he have destroyed thee. 59. The Lord will make thy plagues wonderfull, &c. 61. And every plague which is not written in this Law will the Lord bring upon thee, untill thou be destroyed.

Their Kings and Caciques were no more regarded by them than the meanest, they enthralled all the Natives in most woefull servitude and captivity; their sufferings have bin most wonderfull, such as the Book of the Law hath not registred, nor any other record; they spared no age nor sex, not women with childe; they laid wagers who could digge deepest into the bodies of men at one blow, or with most dexterity cut off their heads; they tooke infants from their mothers breasts and dash'd their innocent heads against the rockes; they cast others into the rivers with scorne, making themselves merry at the manner of their falling into the water; they set up severall gallowses, and hung upon them thirteen Indians in honour they said of Christ and his twelve Apostles: And yet further the same Bishop mervailes at the abominable blindnesse and blasphemy of his Countrymen, impropriating their bloudy crimes unto God himselfe, giving him thanks in their prosperous tyrannies, like those thieves and Tyrants he sayth spoken of by the Prophet Zachary, 11. 5. ) They kill, and hold themselves not guilty, and they that sell them say, Blessed be the Lord, for I am rich.

And now if all these parallels will not amount to a probability, one thing more shall be added, which is the dispersion of the Jewes, tis said, The Lord shall scatter thee among all people, from one end of the earth, even to the other, &c. Deut. 28. 64. The whole remnant of thee

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I will scatter into all winds, Ezek. 5. 10, 12, 14. & Zach. 2. 6. I have spread you as the foure winds of heaven.

Now if it be considered how punctuall and faithfull God is in performing his promises and threats mentioned in the Scripture of truth, wee shall have cause to looke for the Jewes in America, one great, very great part of the earth; Esay had said, 1. 8. The daughter of Syon shall be left as a lodge in a garden of Cucumbers, and as Helena (u) found it in her time, pomorum custodium an Apple-yard; so (w) Cyrill affirmeth in his daies it was a place full of Cucumbers; Ieremies prophecies of Babylons destruction, even in the circumstances thereof, are particularly acknowledged and related by Xenophon (x), The Lord had threatned to bring a Nation upon Israell swift as the Eagle flieth, Deut. 28. 49. Iosephus (y) saith this was verified in Vespatians Ensigne, and the banner of Cyrus was an Eagle (z) also, as the same Xenophon relateth; and if the Jewes bee not now, never were in America, how have they been dispersed into all parts of the earth? this being indeed so large a portion of it; how have they bin scattered into all the four windes, if one of the foure did never blow upon them? Much more might be said of their sufferings from the Spaniards, whom the barbarous Indians thereupon counted so barbarous and inhumane, that they supposed them not to come into the world like other people, as if it were impossible, that any borne of man and woman should be so monstruously savage and cruell; they derived therefore their pedigree from the wide and wild Ocean, and call'd them (a) Viracocheie, i. e. the foame of the Sea, as beeng borne of the one, and nourished by the other, and poured upon the earth for its destruction. (b) Acosta indeed gives another interpretation of

[ 35 ]

that word in honour of his Nation, but other (c) writers unanimously accord in this; and (d) Benzo confidently averreth, that the conceit and judgement of the Indians touching the originall of the Spaniards, is so setled in them, that none but God himselfe can alter their minds herein; for thus saith hee they reason among themselves, the winds tumble downe houses, and teare trees in peeces, the fire burnes both trees and houses, but these same Viracocheies devoure all, they turn over the earth, offer violence to the rivers, are perpetually unquiet, wandering every way to finde gold, and when they have found it, they throw it away at dice, they steale, and sweare, and kill, yea and kill one another, and deny God: yea these Indians in detestation of the Spaniards, he saith, doe execrate and curse the sea it selfe for sending such an intractable, fierce, and cruell a generation into the earth: But thus have wicked sinnes drawne woefull punishments, threatned to the Jewes, and suffered also by these Americans, wherein the more hath bin spoken, not onely to deter all Christians from such inhumane barbarities, but to provoke the readers every way to compassionate such transcendent sufferers, the rather because as Canaan of old was Emanuels land, Hos. 9. 3. the holy land, Zach. 2. 12. and the Jewes were Gods peculiar people, so these surely are either a remnant of Israell after the flesh, or else God will in his good time incorporate them into that common-wealth, and then they also shall become the Israel of God.

(view high resolution image of above adaptation of Ortelius #163 "Tartary" Map)

[ 36 ]

Part  Second.

Some contrary reasonings removed,
and first in the generall.


There be some that by irrefragable arguments, they suppose, evince and overthrow all conjectures that the Americans be Jewes: Apocryphall Esdras in Historicalls may be of some credit, and that sentence of his by many is applyed to this very purpose; and these very people, the ten tribes led away captive by Salmanasar, tooke this counsell among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the Heathen, and goe forth into a farther Countrey, where

"...goe forth into a farther countrey, where never man dwelt" -- cf. Ether 2:5: "...go forth into... that quarter where there never had man been." -- This textual parallel was first noticed by Brigham H. Roberts -- see his posthumous 1985 Studies of the Book of Mormon p. 186. See also the text describing "Arsareth" on Abraham Ortelius' "Map No. 163" in his 1570 Theatrum Orbis Terrarum; José de Acosta's 1604 Natural & Moral History bk. I, ch. 23, p. 75; Menasseh ben Israel's 1650 Hope of Israel page 10; Elias Boudinot's 1816 comments on "the account given by Esdras;" and Rev. Ethan Smith's 1823 comments on 2 Esdras xiii.

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never man dwelt, that they might there keepe their statutes, which they never kept in their owne land, and they entred into Euphrates, by the narrow passages of of the river, for through that Countrey there was a great way to goe, namely of a yeere and an halfe, and the same Region is called Arsareth, &c. 2 Esdr. 13. 40. &c. (a) Acosta is of opinion that these words thus produced by many, make in truth against this conjecture, and that for two reasons. 1. The ten Tribes went so farre to keepe their statutes and ceremonies, but these Indians observe none of them, being given up to all Idolatries: And is this at all consequent, such was their purpose, therefore the successe must be answerable? is it likely they should be so tenacious in a farre and forraigne land, that never kept them in their owne, as the next words expresse? His second Argument is of like force, for tis not said, that Euphrates and America be contiguous, or places so neere one the other, much-lesse that the entries of that River should stretch to the Indies; but hee tells of a very long journey taken by them, suitable to the places of their removall, and approach, which was to a Countrey where never man dwelt, and what Countrey could this be but America? all other parts of the world being then knowne and inhabited: Besides there hath bin a common tradition among the Jews, and in the world, that those ten tribes are utterly lost; in what place are they then like to be found if not in America? for they shall be found againe. Some conjectures that they came from Norway, and be of that nation, have bin mentioned, with the improbability also thereof; and now lately T. Gage sets forth his new survey of the West Indies, his long abode there, and diligent observation of many, very many remarkable passages in


Probabilities, that those Indians are
Judaical, made more probable by some
Additionals to the former Conjectures.

An Accurate DISCOURSE is premised of
Mr. John Elliot, (who first preached the Gospel
to the Natives in their own Language) touching
their Origination, and his Vindication of the

P L A N T E R S.

Psal. 59. 11. Slay them not, lest my people forget, scatter them by thy power.

Ezek. 34.6. My sheep wandred through all the mountains, my flock
was scattered upon all the face of the earth, and none did search or
seek after them.

Greg, in Cant. 6. 13. Bene quater reverti unamitisadmonetur,
quod in quatuor mundi partes Judcei dispersisunt, qui ubicunq;
fuerint, in fine convertentu. ----

Hcec scripsit, non ut Doctor perfectus, sedcum docendis
Aug. Epist. 130.

THO. THOROWGOOD S.T.B Norfolciencis.

L O N D O N,
Printed for Henry Brome at the Gun in Ivie-Lane. 1660.

[ vi ]


M A J E S T Y.

There was a contention (most illustrious Sovereign) amongst the Tribes of Israel, who should make greatest haste to bring home David the King, 2 Sam. 19. 9. 10. Such a strife hath been in your Land of late concerning your Gracious Majesty; our Governors, as those Elders of Judah, vers. 11. have not been slack to bring the King again to his House; and it would be grief of heart to us, if our Tribe, the least of all, of little ability and esteem among men, should be the last that bring the King again, we have not been wanting in our prayers for this: The violence indeed of former innovations drove some from their affection to Episcopacy, and the necessity of later times inclined them to the Government of other Churches reformed; but neither of these hath, nor shall any thing else ever stir up in them any disloyal thoughts towards your Majesty; and our hope is, that your Highness will follow the example and advice of the great King James, who did equally love and honour the Learned and Grave men

[ vii ]

Rev. John Eliot (1604-1690)

[ 1 ]


The learned conjectures of Reverend Mr.
John Eliot touching the Americans,
of new and notable consideration, written
to Mr.


By reading your book, intituled, Jews in America, or Probabilities that the Americans be of that Race, the Lord did put it into my heart to search into some Scriptures about that subject, and by comparing one thing with another, I thought, I saw some ground to conceive, that some of the Ten Tribes might be scattered even thus far, into these parts of America, where we are according to the word of God, Deut. 28. 64. I wrote unto you these few weak meditations about it, according as the streights of my time, and manifold imployments would give way, there is a great distance of place betwixt us, and I perceive it was a long time ere they came to your hands. Though the Lord hath scattered the Ten Tribes into corners, and made their remembrance to cease among men, as he threatned, Deut. 32. 21. in so much as that they are lost, and no man knowes where to find them; yet the Lord hath promised to bind them up again, and to gather together those dry and scattered bones, and bring them to know the Lord, and to be known, and acknowledged among men again. He that can gather together the scattered dust of the dead bodies of men, and raise them up at the resurrection, he also can find the lost Israel: and now the time is

[ 2 ]

even at hand, wherein the people of God do waite for the accomplishment of that great work, which appeares not only by the interpretation of the holy prophesies, but also by the spirit of prayer, which the Lord hath poured out upon his servents on that behalf, as also by the spirit of search, and inquiry after them, which is of late more stirring, then in former times. Among whom the Lord hath put it into your mind to take pains to inquite after them in America. In which search, you professing to shoot your arrowes only at rovers, presenting only probabilities to break the ice into this strange disquisition, have thereby provoked others to follow this chase; It's not to be thought, but that some others, who see no reason to search for them that way, especially such who may think, that God calleth not, to make any search at all after them, such may conceive all these arrowes to be wide off the mark. That if the Apostle, Rom. 11 11.25. until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in, is fit to be remembered, and so all Israel shall be saved, viz. Israel shall come in under the Gentiles skirt, being some of the croud, whereas others, and that general do apprehend that Israel shall be brought in by their own covenant, and that the Gentiles shall be blessed, quickned, and brought in by vertue of their coming in, and come in as under the skirt of their Covenant, seven men shall take hold of the skirt of one Jew: to which purpose many passages of the same, Rom. 11 are very considerable, as ver. 12,15,16,23,24,27. and glad shall he be, that can get hold on the skirt of a Jew, I have some cogitations, as well as others, of the first peopling of America by the posterity of Sem; though in sundry particulars, I have some different thoughts touching the story of those first times. I have not the help of variety of Authors, my only guide is the holy Scriptures, which is the best and surest record of all. And by the conduct of that sure guid, I conceive that the first planters of America, to be not only of Sem, but Ebrew as of Eber, even as Abraham and Israel were though not in the same line, of which if I misremember not, I did give a touch in my former letters to you, and now I shall write a little more.

The chief record of those times are left unto us in the

[ 3 ]

names of the holy line of Christ, in whose families, chiefly the Church was preserved, and the holy worship of God upheld in the world. Out of these records we may read some of the most remarkable providences that befell the Church, both in the old world before the flood, and in the first times after it. The history of the first times after the flood, as touching our present purpose in hand, as as followeth.

The Ark landed Eastward first of the land of Eden, as the text proves, and Sir Walter Raleigh doth clear, whose judgment herein is considerable. Noah and his three sons did dwell there quietly, and prosperously, multiplying of posterity, rather then fixing his habitations and possessions for the space of above 30 years: for a few people in a wast country, have more desire to procure company to them, then possesse lands other then for their presant use: this their peaceable and succesful progresse in replenishing the world is recorded in the name of, the sone of hope in the holy line of the promised seed, whom they hoped for, and believed; Arphaxad, which signifietl! a healer of ruines, shewing that the Church looked on the dispensations of providence in those times, the ruined World, and the ruined Church were in the healing, growing, and rising hand, and therefore they did record it to Gods praise, in the holy line of Christ, which record, though it was first wrote but two years after the flood, yet there is no reason but to think that they so continued, saving that there was one sad affliction fell out in those first times, namely, that Noah having planted a vineyard (finding the soil replenished with such plants and pregnant in such fruits, the flood not destroying vegetables) he was drunk with the wine thereof, not because he knew not the strength of the fruit of the vine, unless we should think the old world so foolish, as not to improve the fruit to an use so easily invented, when as they had inventions of far greater considerations, and difficulty, but out of an unwatchfulnesse over his own waies, for the humbling of his own heart, and trial of his Sons; though this may excuse him a tanto, because he now began to be an husbandman, as all men usually do in new plantations, what ever their occupations were formerly; for in the old

[ 4 ]

world Noah was a Father, a Judge, a Ruler, and eminent in the Church, and if he attended to any occupation manual, it was Carpentry (of which calling our Lord Jesus was) especially he attended thereunto for a hundred years beforethe flood, and more. But his awakening and repentance was so deep and spiritual, as that she fpirit of prophetie came upon him, to dispence and declare Gods blessings, and works among his children, and posterity. The time when this fell out, was before the great expedition, and sending forth of Sem and his Sons (of which anon) because all the Sons of Noah were yet at home together: and it was after Canaan, Chams youngest Son was bornee, because Cham is cursed in him, and his posterity, shewing, that he was then, as it is probable, an ill qualified, unpromising, unhappy boy, and it might be, he that first told his father Cham, yea, and it may be uncovered his grandfather, Iying in a posture capable of being uncovered, became in him falleth the curse.

After thirty yeares cohabitation, or there abouts, they beginning to grow numerous, found not only need to disperse and spread themseIves further upon the face of the earth but also a desire was in them,especially in Sems familie, where the Church most flourished, to visit, and inhabit the land of Eden, where the garden of Eden had been, and where abouts, it is most like Adam, with the other Patriarks, the chief rulers of the old world had dwelt; all which saving the first three, Noah had known, and among whom, it is like, he, and his Sons had dwelt,which might well breed in them a desire to possesse, at least to send forth his Sons to possesse those desirable places of the earth, and to leave that Easterne world, the cursed habitation of Cain and his posterity, and where the floud-growing sins did first spring up, as appeareth in the history of the old world. So great a business of dispersing themselves, and removing unto so remote a place, no question, did cause them, with prayers, and sacrifices unto the Lord, to consult seriously upon it, the issue of which consultation was this, that Sem, in whose familie the holy line of the promised seed, did first attempt this removall Westward, towards the land of Eden, and his Sons with him, unlesse they might go before to beat

[ 5 ]

the way for them: So that there was an eminent sending forth of people into the new plantation of the old world; which did cause Arphaxad, in whom theline of the promised seed did run,to call his Son, in whom they hoped for the promise, Salack, which signifies sent for their grandfather Noah, and their father Sem in a counsel of the Fathers, did send forth all the family of Sem westward, even all the five sons of Sem, namely, Elam, Ashur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram, as after will appear in the possessions, and habitations they setled upon.

The time of this great removal, and sending forth was between thirty and forty years after the floud, for Arphaxad begat Salah at his fifteenth year, and that son's name bore the record of that great enterprise: The successe of this voyage appeareth in the Scriptures to be as followeth, Elam the eldest Son finding a commodious situation about the East borders of the Persian gulph (now so called) there setled himself, and his posterity, for it is most manifest that Persia is in Scripture called Elam, he proceeded no further in that Westerne expedirion: The rest of his brethren abode in those parts above twenty years, but at the last finding cause to prosecute the enterprise and plantation of the world, which they had been so solemnly sent forth about: the great river Havilah, or Tigris (which maketh the Persian gulph by empting it self into it) was a great impediment unto their progresse, they were a great while, in getting, and using means to passe over that river with their women, and little ones, with their flocks and heards: But at last by the great mercy of God they got well over, which was so remarkable a mercy of God, that the son of hope in the holy line, being about that time born unto Salah, in whom the promise was, he called his name in remembrance of this mercy Eber, which signifieth passing over. The time of this great, and observeable providence was about the thirtieth year of Salah's age, thirty years after they had been sent forth upon that expedition, and about the 67. year after the floud.

Their proceeding in plantation after they had gotten over those great waters, appeareth to be this, that Ashur, the second son of Sem, took possession of Shinar, that pleasant

[ 6 ]

and fertil country in the land of Eden, where afterward Nimrod, the rebel, found him possessed, and out of which country he drove him, Gen. 10. 11. Arphaxad, the third son of Sem (in whose family was the line of the promised seed,) went lower upon that river, and possessed Ur of the Chaldees which appeareth by this, because there the Church of God in that line and family abode untill Abraham, and out of that country God called him. Aram the fifth son of Sem sate down in the land afterward called Mesopotamia, I say afterwards so called, because that is a Greek name, and this possession was transacted before the confusion of languages, when all spake Hebrew: he taking up this possession before Lud who was his elder brother, did it no doubt, with his consent, who went further westward, and planted himself, and posterity in Lydia, the most westerly skirt of Sems posterity. And this is the issue of the great expidition, upon which all the sons of Shem was sent forth in the beginning of Salah his daies: All those plantations were setled soon after Eber's birth, about seventy years after the floud. In all this story it is observable, that the Church, and its posterity, had a spirit in them to goe westward, and so had all the rest of the sons of Noah afterwards, as doth appear by the holy story, for they multiplyed in the place of the resting of the Arke, but did not fix themselves and posterity till the earth was divided, by a counsel held by the fathers, & given unto them for their own possession, only those forenamed sons of Sem did fix themselves in possessions, being sent forth for that purpose, as it is said before. About the time when Eber was born or soon after, Nimrod the Rebel was born, which appears, Gen. 10. 6, 7, 8. his Father Cush was coetaneous with Arphaxad, Cush had five sons, the fourth of them had two sons, all borne before Cush had Nimrod, so that Nimrod was rather younger then the grandchildren of Arphaxad and Cush: now Eber was Arphaxads grandchilde, and therefore Nimrod was somewhat younger then Eber, and was born about, or soon after the time when Ashur, Arphaxad, Lud, & Aram made their new plantations above mentioned: and hence it must needs appear, that when afterwards Nimrod drove Ashur out of Shinar, he did very unjustly, and

[ 7 ]

therefore was called a mighty hunter; Ashur was a good man, and of the Church, but Nimrod called a hunter before the Lord. Gen. 10. 10, 11. These new and fixed plantations of the world had quietness and prosperity, for the space of more than twenty years, until Nimrod made a disturbance among them,

The fame of the good success of the western plantations, & contentment of the people in their pleasant places, going back unto the place of their first landing of the Arke (so they could not but hold intercourse where Noah, Ham Japhet, and all their Sons were yet abiding, not tixed, but waiting, which way they should be sent forth to people and possesse the world: it moved in them an earnest desire to go Westward also whichh desire was so effectual, as that they did at last accomplish their desires, as we shall hereafter see.

The aged Fathers (who were Rulers in chief in that paternal government) being slow to send out the sons of Japhet, and Ham, as they had done, the Sons of Sem, the young men grew impatient of such delays, and were madly desirous to run into the land of Eden, and being still cursed, and stayed by the paternal government of the Fathers, Nimrod a proud ambitious young man, between twenty, and thirty years old, entertained thoughts of casting off the yoke of the paternal government, and would no longer be curbed from his desires of going into the land of Eden: he foon found a crew of young fellowes like himself that were as weary of government as he, and as desirous to goe Westward, to the land of Eden, as he, whereupon much company gathered to him, and he took upon him to be their Captain, leader and monarch changing that form of government which had been in force ever since the world began, and was still in force, namely paternal government: but he takes upon him Kingly government, gathering up a confused company out of many families, who rebelled against their aged parents and followed this young upstart, amon whom a great part of the Sons of Ham, and Japhet were, a scattering they had out of most of the Easterne people, having this advantage, that they all spake one language, out of what coast soever they came Gen. 11. 1. that language was Hebrew, which

[ 8 ]

the old world, before the floud did universally speak, being necessary in the paternal government thereof, and the new world also, until the confusion of Babel. The end, & scope of this enterprise was not to make war, the new world yet knew no war, but their ends were to break away from their Fathers to goe dwell in the land of Eden, and to change government, or rather to call off the paternal government, without considering of the issue of such a change. The rebellious company of youth marched along from the East, Nimrod being their Captain, and arived at Shinar, a place where Ashur and his posterity had been planted before Nimrod was born; they take likeing to thar place, and there would dwell; Ashur refuseth,and pleadeth his true possession, & that by the authority of the Fathers, who had sent them forth to that purpose, and therefore they had no right to disposess them, especially not being sent forth by the councel of the Fathers so to do: but the young proud men put little weight in Ashur being sent by the Fathers, from whose authority they had broken away, and having so much hight of mind, and wickedness, as to break the fifth commandement, and was as little careful to be ruled by the justice of the eighth: no bonds of justice can bind them whom the awe of authority cannot bind, and therefore there they would dwell. And not onely so, but that they would no longer be governed by the Fathers, bur they would have a Prince to governe thrm, and Nimrod should be the man. Ashur seeing this division grow high, and great, and full of danger, and fearing it might come to some violence, and blood at last, like a wise and godly man he departed out of that land, he, and his, and went into another country, and that he named after his own name, Assyria, and there he built cities. And now Nimrod began to reigne as King, and the first act he did after he was thus made their King, was to build cities Erac, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar, Gen. 10.10. Though this great distemper was so far quieted by the wisdome, and self denial of Ashur, in giving place to this boistrous crew of rebellious youth, yet there were great divisions still, by reason that the two families of Ham and Japhet, had not their habitations and possessions assigned them

[ 9 ]

by the Fathers, as the family of Sem had, which troubles were not appeased, until a great counsel of the Fathers sate upon this businesse, and agreed upon the division and distribution of the whole earth. Men of new plantations are subject to much disrest, and unquietnesse, until all common lands be divided, an humor which after nations have no occasion to see into. And though I have on the by touched this grave counsel of the Fathers, and the quieting conclusion they made, yet I have not brought down the story of these times so far: besides the unsettlement of those two families, for want of their portion in the division of the earth: Nimrods rebellion brought the world into a great disturbance and tended to whet up the family of Ham (of which he was) to be discontented for not having their portion of the world laid out unto them, the not doing whereof gave occasion to this rebellion: and Japhets family likewise, desiring to go Westward, would lay in for their parts too, so that the division grew great and full of trouble. Mean while Nimrod thought it his safest way to make sure unto himself his new upstart government, and perceiving that Sem was in great repute in the world for his Religion, and foreseeing that his neer neighbourhood in Ur, and the authority of his name might soon weken the affections of his people to him, seeing also the unreplenished earth gave occasion to his fickle minded young crew, to be roving and scattering to every new place they heard of to be fit for plantation, and so he might come to be diserted by them, and his kingdom ruined, therefore he (with the counsel of such as were chief about him, and firme to his designe) used the best humane policy they could to prevent these mischiefs, hereupon they concluded, that they would build a city, and a tower of a huge hight, and magnitude, whereby to attain these two ends, first to procure unto themselves a Sem, a great name to balance the potent name of Sem, and secondly to keep the people together from being scattered from him, having with him both greatnesse, strength and safty. But this is to be observed that the very plot and policy which he used to establish his kingdome, was the very way, and means to bring it to utter ruine, insomuch that his kingdome lasted

[ 10 ]

but a very few years: when foundations are laid without God, the building is unstable, and not durable; for the Lord looking upon the great divisions and discontent afore named, as also upon this proud rebellion, he wrought that strange work of confounding their language, whereby they were not only hindered in their intended building, and setling together, but on the contrary were broken into so many several companies as they spake languages; and were thereby necessitated to be scattered abroad over the face of all the earth, to break their plots, and accomplish Gods end in replenishing the earth, thus Nimrods policy turned to his ruine, and his kingdome came to an utter end and confusion, God from heaven blasting that his rebellion against the ancient government of the Fathers. This confusion of languages fell not only upon Nimrods crew of builders but also upon all the discontented people above mentioned, yea and afterwards upon others according as they apostatized from the Church, and from paternal government. By this means now they were necessitated, not only to be quiet from the great division that were among them, because they could not understand each others language, but now they were by a divine hand prepared to be sent out with quietness into all parts of the earth, to possesse, and subdue the same. And now was the season of that fore-named counsel of the Fathers, for now the Fathers might with more freedome and quiet come together, and agree about the division of the whole earth, which agreement in brief was this. They understanding how the midland Sea did cut in two the whole Continent of the Western world, (the coasts which they all thirsted after) they appointed Japhet to possesse all the Isles of the Sea, and the Northside thereof, which (being elder brother) he first chose, as Sems sons above named chose by their seniority: the South side of the Mediterranean Sea was assigned to Ham, the places already possessed, as also the deserted Eastern part of the world was left unto Sem: I say, the desereted Eastern part of the world; for they being discontented with their place, and so vehemently desiring to go westward, they would not leave a child, nor house behind them; nor do we read of any cities

[ 11 ]

they built, until they were fixed in their own deserted possessions: and furthermore, because afterwards in Abrahams time Sem is found at Salem in Canaan, under the title of Melchisedeck, as it is conceived among some of the sons of Cham, it may well be, that this great counsel of the Fathers, afore mentioned, who divided the earth, and appeased the divisions of men, seeing an unjust spirit in the familie of Cham, out of which Nimrod the rebel sprung, and fearing some after disturbance by them, they did request Sem to goe, and dwell in that place, there to be a King of righteousness and peace among them, and to keep quietness in their posterity; that place being much about the centre, where all the three families were bordering upon each other, though I refuse not also a prophetical foresight of the holy land, and holy City in that place, as some think, to be a motive for his residing there. The place where this council of the Fathers was held, was Ur, because there was the Church, Gods worship, and presence most eminently, and the confusion of languages fell not upon them, nor was the discontent, and division among them, nor any sparks of the rebellion, but quietness, and place therefore; that was the only place, where the great councel could be held, and it is most like that thither came Noah, Sem, and other of the godly Fathers to dwell, all giving occasion for the council to be held there. These manifold and memorable works of God, the Fathers saw good to record in the holy line of the promised seed, for Eber his son of hope, being about that time borne, he called his name Peleg, which signifies division, recording the great division in those daies, both among the People, and especially of the division of the whole earth among them, for to make peace, and also the division of languages, Gen. 10. 25. In his daies the earth was divided. Again, there being now many languages in the earth, the Fathers thought good to call the holy language, which still continued in the Church by the name of Eber, who was then in his flower, and stood against Nimrod, and kept the sparkes of his rebellion from poysoning the youth of the Church, whereby the Church was, by the favour of God, kept from the confusion both of rebellion and discontent,

[ 12 ]

and also of language; that language therefore left in the Church, beareth his name Ebrew, Japhets family spake Greek, Latine, &c. Chams family Syriack, Egyptian, &c. The time when these great agitations were, is thus made manifest: It was before proved that Nimrod was about the age of Eber, who, in the thirty fourth year of his age, begat Peleg, who beareth the record of this confusion, and conclusion thereof: hence Nimrod might be about twenty-four years old, when he began his rebellion in the East, and by such time as he was thirty four year old all the storme was over, and his company scattered over all the earth, and his upstart kingdome quite ruin'd, about 101. years after the floud; so that there may be ten years more or lesse, allowed him for that action, the beginning of it being about ninty one years after the floud.

This is also considerable in the holy story, that by the same it doth appear, that none of Sems family were in this rebellion, because it rose in the East, and they were all removed westward about sixty years before, and were setled in their possessions, as is above said. Again it is not like, that any of the ancient Fathers of the families of Japhet, no, nor of Ham, in whose familie the rebellion sprung, were consenting in it: for who can think that the wise Fathers would so betray their authority, as to subject themselves to a boy of twenty four yeares old, which was a small age in those long lived times.

And thus it doth now appear that the same ground of faith, by which we believe Europe to be of Japhet, and Africa of Ham, we also believe all the East parts of the world to be peopled by the posterity of Sem, for though Elam or Parsia, be the furthest Easterne bounds that were so early planted, yet in as much as all the Eastern world was deserted totally by the other two families, and the Scripture guideth us to further notice of planting the Easterne world by the posterity of Sem. And seeing I have undertaken to shew that the first planters of America were Ebrewes of Eber, who was of the line of Sem, I must bring this history of the first planting of the world a little further.

When the Lord had thus from heaven blasted Nimrods

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rebellion against the government of the Fathers, by confounding their language, and thereby utterly disabled, and disappointed those that affected it from proceeding, terrified others from affecting it, and strengthened the Church in their opposing of it, then was that troublesome and terrifying mischief, for the presant, utterly suppressed, dissolved, and scattered away, like a black cloud from before the bright Son, and this did minister great tranquility of mind to the wise, and peaceable among the people: Moreover that bone of discontent, and division of heart about dividing the empty earth, and assigning to each family his desired possession, and habitation being by the wisdome of the Fathers taken out of the way, and all the (erewhile unaccommodated) families, and companies scattered and disperced into their several appointed, and desired habitations, the earth grew calm and quiet like the smooth waters, by degrees asswaging their tumultuous minds, and composing themselves into good agreement and accord, their minds being now diverted, and taken up with the multifarious business of new plantations. So that the Fathers did now see another calm season in the daies of their government, their children and families making considerations for peace, and good agreement according as vicinity of place, or affinity by marriages, or consanguinity did minister occasion thereunto. And this peaceable state did (not only the more eminent Church in Sems familie but) all the world enjoy for more then thirty years together, which great mercy of God unto all, and comfort to the good old Fathers who sat at the helme, and ruled the World, they did think meet to leave upon record to all ages, in the name of the next sone of hope in the holy line of the promised seed: therefore at thirty years of age Peleg begat his son, whom upon the forenamed ground he called Reu or Regnu as some pronounce that [y], which signifies consociation, or confederation among the divided. Moreover this tranquility and rest, which both Church and world had so long enjoyed, was not yet of a good time expired, for partly the remembrance of the ten years trouble and strife, which rose by reason of the unsettlednesse and discontent

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of the two families of Japhet, and Ham, for want of their desired westerne habitation, which also gave advantage unto that daring tumult of Nimrod's rebellion, was not easily, nor quickly forgotten, but the remembrance of it kept all wise mens minds in a continual fear of any occasion presented, that might move a like division, discontent, or rebellion, the burnt child dreads the fire: and now likewise all the people of the earth having their desired places of habitation, and vast bounds to spread themselves unto according as the unity of language, or other relations might mould them into fit companies, & societies, the whole bent of mens mindes, in such exigents, are to build, plant, fixe, and settle themselves in the places of their desire. And no sooner could there be a company of young plants sprung up, fit for a new plantation, but the new divided world did afford them some desirable place or other, to draw them forth unto further and further spreadings, and dispersions, insomuch that mens minds being thus taken up, and their hands imployed, and now also living at great distances from each other, whereby all occasion of strife was taken away,hence the peace of all nations was not only continued, but grew stronger and stronger, and all remembrance of former strife, and anger, buried and forgotten: And thus the daies of peace and rest under the government of the Fathers were still further continued, for the space of more then thirty years longer, which long continued mercy the Fathers were so affected with, and took such eminent notice of, that they thought meet to leave a record of it to God's praise, unto after ages, in the name of the next son of hope in the holy line of the promised seed, whom therefore his father called Serug, which signifies full agreement, which was more then sixty years after Nimrods rebellion was scattered, and one hundred sixty three years after the floud.

And thus have we brought the story of the first times of the world after the floud, recorded truly in no book, saving in the holy book of God, thus far finding them still in peace and good agreement, I will so leave them, and not proceed to the after corruptions, and troubles that did arise, because

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my scope is, not to prosecute and set forth this story, but only shew how the world was first planted, and by whom the Easterne parts of the earth, and America were first peopled, and possessed.

Gen. 10. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30. We read that Eber his second son was Jocktan, who had thirteen sons, now this is to be considered, that it appeareth by the issue, and effects; that the same spirit and desire was in all the Sons of Noah, namely to goe westward from the place where the Ark did rest, and that they did quite desert the Easterne world, as not being affected there to fix themselves, which consideration doth afford several consequences of weight in this story. But for our present purpose consider this, viz. that seeing the family of Sem was first sent forth upon this westerne expedition to replenish the world, they did take the next and nearest parts for their possession, as appeareth before in the possessions of Elam, and Ashur, &c. Afterwards the rest of the western world being divided to Japhet, and Ham, and possessed by them, hence it doth follow, that the whole Easterne world is left to the familie of Sem. Now the most considerable places being taken up, and p0ssessed by the elder Sons of the family, it remaineth that these younger Sons, namely, the Sons of Jocktan, must be sent back into the Easterne parts of the world, which had before been deserted, and unto the possession of which, none of the familie of the Sons of Noah had any affection or desire. Hence therefore it may appear, that when this long tranquilitie of sixty years and upward (after Nimrods rebellion was brought to nothing) did give oportunity of promoting plantations in the world, and of quiet and peaceable transplanting themselves from place to place, for the injoyment of their inheritances assigned them by the Fathers; These Sons of Jocktan, about the time of Serug's birth, might be up-grown, and present their desires to the Fathers, to assigne unto them a portion in the possession of the earth, which might well produce another great councel of the Fathers, to settle so great a family: the conclusion and product whereof was this, that in as much as all the western parts of the world were divided unto the two families

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of Japhet and Ham, and the East left unto Sem, therefore they could not expect any westerne possessions to be assigned unto them, there were no more westerne expeditions to be made: seeing also that all neer parts unto Ur (where the Church and Fathers of the holy line did live, and it is like, this and other councels held) were already taken up and possessed, it remaines therefore, that now the Fathers must assigne them possessions in the East parts of the world, and whereas all former expeditions for plantations were westward, now they make an expedition Eastward, and send forth a great familie, the grandchildren of Eber, to possesse the Easterne world, which though it had been deserted in former times, out of a thirsty desire after the westerne parts of the earth, yet now all other parts being divided) here is a great family that like to travel Eastward for their inheritance: and as the Fathers of this familie were the first that had a spirit to go Eastward, to possesse the Eastern world, so they are the last that received their portions by the council of the Fathers, among these families unto whom the Lord saith, the whole earth was divided. Gen. 10.

This great Eastern expedition had this thing memorable in it, that they journeying from their grandfather Eber's possessions, they must of necessity, at least sundry of them, passe through several possessed and planted countries, and especially through the vast countrey of Elams possession, which yet, through the wisdome, and the care of the Fathers, they did safely perform, which was especially furthered by the opportunity of the great peace and tranquility, that all the world did injoy in those daies, through the good blessing of the Lord, they did peaceably, and with good accord and agreement every family past into his own place to take up his assigned possession, which great favour of God, for furtherance of the plantation of the World, no doubt is comprehended in the signification of Serug's name, because that was a great signe and fruit of full agreement, and peace, thus to further the passage of people through planted nations to take up their Eastern possessions. And thus it appeareth by the holy story, that as the

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whole Easterne world is the portion of Sem, so all the Easterne world eastward of Elam is the portion of Eber; and no other family could be sent beyond them, because soon after this expidition great corruptions, oppositions, and divisions did arise, as might be shewed, which would have shut the door against any more such undertakings; nor need we give reasons, that there were no more plantations and distributions made by the Fathers, because the word of God saith, that those were the last, and all: Hence therefore we may, not only with faith, but also with demonstration, say, that fruitful India are Hebrewes, that famous civil (though Idolatrous) nation of China are Hebrewes, so Japonia, and these naked Americans are Hebrewes, in respect of those that planted first these parts of the world: The family of Sem was the chiefest Church of the world since the flood, among the sons of Noah, because the holy line of Christ did run in his family, yet the policy of the Church was, as was also the civil policy paternal, and that was the universal policy after the floud among all the Sons of Noah, as it had been through all the old world: and though the Church held, by Gods gracious, providence its greatest glory in the holy line of Christ, yet it is true that godliness, and Religion was in many other families, even in the posterity of Canaan: That policy therefore, Religion, and language did Ebers sons bring into the Easterne world, and planted the same from its first beginning of plantation; this policy was in force till God shooke it, and disalowed it, by the comming in of Moses policy, which he did appropriate to the familie of Abraham, which familie, and the Church in it, the Lord sent westward, and planted them in a Skirt of Hams inheritance: And although the Lord still followed the line of Sem, and Eber, until Christ, yet he shook off all of Sems posterity, save that one line of Abraham in Moses daies: And when Christ came and changed the policy of Moses, which was national, into the Gospel-policy of congregational Churches, and spread it into the world, the Church still went westward into the families of Japhet, and Ham, and Sems familie was wholy deserted, saving that once mention is made of Saints at Babylon, and history telleth of

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Thomas the Apostle in one part of India, but these are small matters in comparison of the vast Easterne world, the huge posterity of Sem, and oh the depth of Gods divine wisdom, and counsel! that his first-born Church should be so long neglected by him, and when will it be Gods time to open the door of grace to them? May it not be worthy of consideration, that when Ezekiels Gospel-temple (a [mystery] yet unto us) shall be measured, the Eastern gate is first measured, Ezek. 40. 6. again when the glory of the Lord cometh into that glorious Temple, he is upon his Westerne progresses and first enters that Temple at the Easterne gate, Ezek. 43. 1, 2, 3. &c. again the frontispeece of that Temple is Eastward, Ezek. 47. and those precious waters of that Sanctuary, so wholsome, powerfull, and precious, they run Eastward into the East land, and the further Eastward the more deep & wonderful they be: doth not all this shew, that there shall be a glorious Church in all the Easterne world? And God grant that the old bottles of the Western world be not so uncapable of the new wine of Christ his expected Kingdom, that the Easterne bottles be not the only entertainers thereof for a season.

Remember Lord the everlasting Covenant and Priesthood of Melchisedeck, to whom they paid Tithes in the lines of Abraham, and let all the earth again say, blessed be the Lord God of Sem, and when shall all ancient Hebrewes again speak the language of Canaan. It is worthy of consideration, that seeing the confusion of languages fell not upon Ebers family (a work of God so eminent that the Fathers have left it upon record, by calling the ancient holy language by Eber's name) how it should come to pass that his posterity have lost his language, and is fallen under the breach of that confusion. If the holy language was kept for the Churches use, as it seemeth to be, thence it might follow, that as they degenerated from the Church, and the ancient government and the holy waies of God, so they fell under the reach of that confusion: and may it not be worth the searching after, whether all the Eastern world, the posterity of Eber, have not more footsteps of the Hebrew language, at least in the gramatical frame of the

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language than the westeme world hath. It seemeth to me, by that little insight I have, that the gramatical frame of our Indian language cometh neerer to the Hebrew, than the Latine, or Greek do: and if so, then may it not be considerable, that the dispersion of the Ten Tribes the utmost ends of the Earth eastward, into the Easterne world (which the Scripture threatneth first, Deut. 28. 64. and after testifieth that way, 2 Kin. 17. 6. 23. hath lesse severity of punishment in it, being dispersed into the countries of Sem, and among the posterity of Eber, whose language and spirit was not wholey strange unto them: whereas Judah, when they were dispersed, it was westward, to the uttermost ends of the Western world, and among a people whose language was utterly strange unto them, being children of another stock and spirit, and among whom they found greater affliction, in as much as her sins were greater than the sins of her sister Samaria. Ezek. 1. 46, 47, 51, 52. Is not this also considerable, that as Samaria and the Ten Tribes were first in the captivity, and least in the offence, so may she not be first in the return? Ezek. 16. 53, 54, 55. seemeth to speak that way: and doth not the Lord seem to say, Ezek. 37. 19. that he will first lay hold on the stick of Joseph in the hands of Ephraim, who was the head of the Ten Tribes? and lastly, doth not the Lord seem to say, Ezek. 16. 61. that after Judah is converted, how ever Ephraim may have priority of time, yet Judah shall have priority of eminency in all other respects; Touching the Ten Tribes, these considerations may seem not unworthy to be thought upon.
1. That the Ten Tribes are dispersed and scattered into other Nations.

2. That they were scattered Eastward.

3. That it was for their sins, for which God did threaten them to be scattered to the utmost ends of the earth.

4. That they shall be found again, and called into Christ his kingdome.

5. Judah being scattered westward, and were scattered to the utmost ends of the Western world.
Hence why ought we not to believe, that the ten Tribes

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being scattered Eastward, are scattered to the utmost ends of the Eastern world? and if so, then assuredly into America, because that is part of the easterne World, and peopled by Easterne Inhabitants, as aforesaid.

It is one of the great works of Christ in the last daies to finde up lost Israel, and bring them into his kingdom? and this moveth the hearts of many of the good people of the Lord to search after them: and in this search I would propound this to consideration, that the surest thread to guid us in this darke inquiry is, to follow the line of the Scriptures, for Scripture notes and markes will be best evidences to move Gods people to believe, whether this, or that people be of the remnant of lost Israel, or no; Now the Scripture doth describe lost Israel in three estates, which descriptions, when they shall be all seen accomplished upon a people, it may seem to be a ground of faith to believe, that they indeed are of that people that have been so long lost, and through free grace found again. Those three estates are these first, the state of their misery, while they are lost, and scattered in the world, and that thread the Lord guided you, in your book, happily to lay hold upon, and how far that thread will guid in this scrutiny, I undertake not to say, aftertimes may say more.

2. The manner, meanes, and way of their returne and recovery.

3. Their deportment after conversion, in their correspondence with converted Judah, and subjection unto David their King, as the Scriptures do mysteriously speak of the Kingdome of Christ. But these things I leave, and yet being but in the twilight, if so neer approaching, and being a subject not yet capable of a judgement to be passed in the case. And this is all I shall at present say about this matter. But seeing there are some that do not approve of the cause of our coming into New-England, no, though it were that we might be freed from the ceremonies, and have liberty to enjoy all the pure Ordinance[s] of Christ; and that they doubt of our sincerity, and that under a needless pretence of conscience we came hither, indeed and in truth, for wealth, and matters of this world; and most especially

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the Ministers, who, had it not been to better their living, would not have come hither, and that they have spoken too unreverently of that holy man of God, Mr. Cotton, now at rest with the Lord, and lastly, they call into question, at least, seem to doubt of the equity of our titles unto the lands we possesse among the Indians, in these respects therefore I shall add a little more.

For the grounds and the reasons of our coming hither, no doubt but they were manifold, according to the manifold conditions, temptations, trials, hopes and expectations that were prevalent in in the mindes of them that came, yea, among the godly, there may well be conceived variety of grounds moving to this vast and difficult undertaking, and among the Christian and religious grounds and reasons, which swayed in the hearts of good men, they may not be thought to be unmixed with some thing of another nature, which the world, or flesh, or outward being in this life might present or suggest, our best actions are mixed with that mud which followeth from the unmortified principles of corrupt nature, therefore pleads for Christian grounds and ends of coming hither, must be understood with that caution. Nor would I take the imputation of carnal ends with the left hand, but rather as an intimation from God to try our ends and grounds, and cast out such things as do offend. Grounds and ends are secret things from the sight of other men, who will ever judge of them by their fruits, and therefore our best way to prove unto men that our grounds end ends are Religious, is, to let it appear to be so, by our religious waies and works, that here we do walke in. Assuredly if any do come hither to greaten their wealth, and conforts in this world, who had any considerable being in England, I believe by such time as he had conflicted with our wildernesse wants, difficulties, uncertainties, temptations, & raw beginnings, he wanted not matter of abundant conviction of the great folly of coming out of an old setled and cultur'd land into a wilderness, to mend his means of living; that this is also true, that such as lived in England upon their handy labours, and had nothing to live on, have not a little mended their outward meanes

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of living: But that was not the conditionof such upon whose shoulders the weight of this great work hath lyen, who have, by coming hither, changed a comfortable being for the outward man into a condition full of labour, toile, sorrow, wants, and temptations of a wildernesse, which dwellers in England cannot so well see, weigh, or pitty, but the Lord can. We were not ashamed in England (and we have lesse cause now) to owne our distastes of mens imposing their ceremonies in the holy worship of God, and the non-conformity both of our judgement, and practice unto such a way; nor did the terrors of a prison, or whatever else might follow, answer or conquer our consciences in that cause, for the cause was Gods: and yet when God opened a door of quiet departure, and liberty to enjoy the holy worship of God, not according to the fantasies of man, but according to the word of God, without such humane additions and novelties, we thought it better for us to give way by departing quietly and leaving the field to them that were masters of it, than to stand up longer in opposition; and I cannot see why any should cast upon this our quiet departure the imputation of rending. We have reason to think, that many who sate at the helm, did like well of that our departure, and said let them go in peace, expecting to have stood their ground the more firme by our removal. Some have blamed our departure upon another point, viz. a giving back in the cause, and deserting them in the conflict, but such should have done well to consider, that the cause was not the same, nor the state of times alike, when we departed, and they complained. Assuredly the better part of our plantations did undertake the enterprise with a suffering minde, and who ever shall do such a thing, must be so armed or else he will not be able to hold out in the work: to part with our native country, a setled habitation, dear friends, houses, lands and many worldy comforts, to go into a wilderness where nothing appeareth but hard labour, wants, and wildernesse-temptations (stumble not countrymen, at the repetition of that word, wildernesse-temptations) of which it is written, that they are trying times, and places, Deut. 8. there must be more then golden hopes

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to bear up the godly wise in such an undertaking, but when the injoyment of Christ in his pure Ordinances is better to the soul, than all wordly comforts, then these things are but light afflictions, come they never so big in the eye of reason: I remember, we were wont. to use unto each other this proverb, before we came, that brown bread and the Gofpel is good chear, and through grace we have learned that lesson a little further in this place, namely; that no bread and the Gospel is so good a choise, as that we have been (in our poor measure) thankful for the one when we have been crying for the other. Had our aime, and desire been gold or tobacco, wherewith many have inriched themselves in America, and more destroyed their souls, we should not have come into so Northernly a climet, where the eagernesse of the cold doth so vehemently resist the Sun in that royal generation of gold, or high concoction of the plants, or had our aime been to inrich our selves with rich Furs, we must not have come into so Southerly a climet, the heat whereof gives not so acceptable entertainment unto those richly clad creatures, as colder places do; But we chofe a place where nothing in probability was to be expected, but Religion, poverty, and hard labour, a composition that God doth usually take most pleasure in, and therefore chosen by the undertakers of this plantation, and accordingly as the bounty of the Lord hath blessed our labours unto any degree of plenty and prosperity, it is too visible, and apparent, that we are ready to grow worse in point of Religion; and that convicteth us, that if Religions men make the world their aime, it will prove destructive to Religion, ye cannot serve God and Mammon. And hence charity may not think, that wise godly men should look so low in this great enterprise, and if any did make that their mark in coming to this place, let that suffice to convince their folly, in that so many have returned home from us, who might take up the saying of Naomi, I went forth full, and all returned empty. Bit above all other men, Ministers that came to New-England to get a benefice there, because they could get none in old England, or to get a better here than they had, they did quite misse the marke, for if a man were so undesireable

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that he could not get imployment in England, his labours would be of lesse accompt here, among so many seeing eyes; and sure he had but a very mean benetice, that could not afford as comfortable a subsistance, as most places here. I thank the Lord, I am not in a temptation to complain, either of Gods bounty, or the peoples love, and yet I know Ministers that are necessitated to labour with their hands, and do many mean offices for meer necessity, both through want of servants, and some other comforts too, and yet I do think, that the brightness of the grace and power of Jesus Christ hath shind in their Ministry more than ever, and the more (I believe) for their tryals. And New-England can name many learned, holy, and peaceable, and selfe-denying Ministers, who wanted no means of plentiful livelyhood in England and are contenced with poor matters. It is true, we had that vented among us, their new-fangles, unto much grief, and offence of the godly, but they have felt the power of the discipline of Christ in the Church, and of civil government in the common wealth unto the reclaiming of same, and therefore God will not charge their sin upon New-England, what ever men may do, when sin shall receive its due censure, the land will be innocent; and because, in allusion to your old kingdome of Eastangles, you called us Novangles, the word of New-fangles is put upon us, but it is a more happy and true cadency of the word, Novangles into No fangles, thus they torture the word to make it speak us so bad. There was indeed one, many years since, an uncomfortable paroxisme among us, though the erring party abused Mr. Cottons authority further then he approved of, and by this the Lord taught us, that we are all but men, and Mr. Cotton was but a man, though far from that corruption of judgement, or pertenacity of defence that is reported of him. But let all men take notice what end the Lord made of those troubles, and were that well observed, such as hope for pardon of their own swervings from the mercies of Jesus Christ,who useth to blot out our iniquities, and remember them no more, would not, yea could not so rake up those buryed bones, long since pardoned both by God and man, to cast an odium upon such a man, whose

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name will be a pretious oyntment poured forth, do what they can. Nay, it will unavoidably reflect upon themselves, and fall upon their own heads, who ever shall with such fingers touch such Prophets of God, as that good man was: he after bewailed those evils in publick, and especially all daies of humiliation, publick, or private, and when he lay upon his death-bed, many Elders of the churches about, being at the lecture, went together to visit him, unto whom, among other gracious words, he did make an holy and humble remembrance of those daies, so as that caused much weeping among us. He is now at rest, and beyond the reach of such arrowes, which, being out shot will return, and pierce the hearts off such as shoot them, which wounds ending in true repentance, they will then forgive Mr. Cotton, and God for Christ his sake will forgive them.

As for that great question of our Title to the lands we here possesse, our general practice hath been to purchase of the natives what we enjoy; and not only so, but it is frequent also with them to invite the English unto fit places. for Townes, because of the benefit they receive by our neighbourhood, and so long as we hold to these principles, and walk by them, no man can have any thing justly to impeach our Titles so far as I conceive; but if we should recede from those principles and practices, I know not what apologie may be made to such a case. Some expresse their fears of some corruption to be the latent springs, that move in the worke of preaching to the Indians, and this I take with my right hand, as an wholsome advertisement, and submonition, I beg of God to help me sincerely to say as David. Psal. 141. 5. such smitings shall not break my head, but be as a pretious ointment. I am but a man, and am sensible, that I need such adverticements or any other that may help me in my dayly conflict with the body of sin, I do dayly fear such evils, and many more because of such feares, for it may be some quick-sighted men have seen some such hints unseen by me, in some of my letters which my friends have printed. One evil feared, is spiritual pride, a sin incident to mans nature, and to mine. I do perceive that the worke of preaching to the Indians is greatly accepted among the people

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of God, which is a temptation to me to lift up my heart with pride; But this I say I foreknew not, nor forethought any such thing, therefore it was no first mover, it is an intruder if it do prevail, and, I trust in the Lord, it shall not have dominion, and I beg prayers against it; and I can, through grace, say, that when here other magnifie their works, it doth abase me; and I have wondered a thousand times, why the Lord should set such a poor wretch as I am on a work in this matter, the unfit of all my brethren, and so much unfitness and frailty I see in my self, and weakness in that little I do, as that I cannot but ascribe the whole glory of the work unto the Lord, who alone is the worker of what is done. Another evil feared, is the sacred thirst of Gold, of which I say as of the former, I neither did nor could expect reward from the Indians, but the contrary; nor did I foresee, or forethink, that there would have been such thoughts of incouragement to the work in our native country, it was a consequence of my preaching, and therefore was not the first mover, and indeed great things are done already from England, among us and the Indians, blessed be God; But this I can say, that the Lord God who, did at the first set me on work without worldly incouragements, or expectations, he hath never failed to supply and help me in such waies, and by such means, as I had no knowledge of: and blessed be his name that hath hitherto made every passage in this work, both towards them and me (as his manner is in these daies) beyond mine, and other mens expectations. The godly undertakers of this plantation had it so much in their hearts, to make the conversion of the Indians one end of their coming, as that they made it one clause in their patent, which did lay a publick ingagement upon us thereunto: and when God was pleased to put me upon that work of preaching to them, that publick ingagement, together with pitty to the poor Indians, and desire to make the name of Christ chief in these darke ends of the earth, and not the rewards of men, were the very first, and chief movers, if I know what did first, and chiefly move in my heart. As for the foundations that are laid among them, I shall say but little, because these foundations, of repentance

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from dead works, of faith in the Lord Jesus, and of holy working with God, may be best seen in the Indians own confessions of their faith, which they have made before the Lord, and I have, by advise, this year made publick, if the Lord please to send them safe to Mr. Winslowes hands. For the foundation of their government they have by covenant solemnly given up themselves unto the Lord, to be ruled in all things by the word of his mouth, a short touch of that Scripture-form of their civil government, upon which they have entred, is already published: and for the Church government it may be gathered, what is like to be, by what is known to be our opinion, and practice in the English Churches in New England" briefly, my scope is to write and imprint no other by Scripture principles in the abrasa tabula, scraped board of these naked people, that so they may be in all their principles a choice people unto the Lord, owing none other Lord or law-giver, but the Lord alone, who is the King of Saints. I cannot ere I have done, but bewail also the vaine, & frothy fashions, follies wanton dresses, and madnesses of the times, which shews mens brains to be more exercised about their breeches, and heels, than about better matters, which might be either to the praise, of God, or for good service unto their generation: nay, it is spoken, as if some carried it, that their religion doth sublimate their spirits, as that they can suffer their flesh to be bedangled from head to foot with the fashions of the vainest men, and wel it is, if they have not, upon the same grounds, a commission to pollute themselves with the like lusts: this is an evil fitter to be ejected with loathing, and derision, that confuted with sober reason. It seemeth men may be said in some respects to be even bewitched with fashions, when they wil disguise and dishonour their own bodies, rather than not to be fashioned like the world, they will cut off their own beards, and old men cut off all gravity, that nature & gray haires would honour them with all, and cover the honour of their gray heads with counterfeited and youth full periwigs, as if all the grave affaires of the land were managed by green-headed youth. An evil it seems in Tertullians time, elegantly and earnestly scorned by him, to such he writes,

[ 28 ]

We youthfullize our heads, as if that were our eternity: If you be not ashamed of the enormity, be ashamed of the pollution, vex not an holy and Christian head with the perriwig and refuse of another mans hairs it may be a filthy person, perhaps a wicked man, ordained to damnation, cast off from your free heads, this slavish excrement, and oh to be lamented! they say the pulpits are much of the same guise. Sundry come over hither from England in such dresses, that the sight of our eyes might move us to lay to heart the sins of England, and yet sundry of ours, yea, of the more ungirt sort of professors too, are more ready to imitate, then bewail them: and were not such sins cryed against by some, there be that would spare no cost to shew their frothy minds by such flags, when it were far better to be bestowed in paying their debts: but Christ hath his pretious ones among us, who do continually bewail and resist these things. And thus, reverend and dear Sir, I have made bold to trouble you with a larger discourse than I intended when I set pen to paper, yet I was willing to intimate thus much unto your self, having sundry motives thereunto. The Lord reward your love, and blesse all your holy labours. Amen

So prayeth
Your unworthy brother          
and fellow-labouror in          
our Lord's Vineyard.
John Elliot.         

F   I   N   I   S.


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